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Lipid products of phosphoinositide 3-kinase bind human profilin with high affinity. Purification of a cortical complex containing two unconventional actins from Acanthamoeba by affinity chromatography on profilin-agarose. Vaccinia virus expresses a novel profilin with a higher affinity for polyphosphoinositides than actin. The affinities of human platelet and Acanthamoeba profilin isoforms for polyphosphoinositides account for their relative abilities to inhibit phospholipase C. High levels of profilin suppress the lethality caused by overproduction of actin in yeast cells. Actin polymerization stimulated by contractile activation regulates force development in canine tracheal smooth muscle. Vascular hypertrophy and hypertension caused by transgenic overexpression of profilin1. Regulation of profilin localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phosphoinositide metabolism. Characterization of palladin, a novel protein localized to stress fibers and cell adhesions. Role of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis in the function of profilin in action assembly. Structural requirements and thermodynamics of the interaction of proline peptides with profilin. Thymosin beta4 promotes angiogenesis, wound healing, and hair follicle development. The bacterial actin nucleator protein ActA of Listeria monocytogenes contains multiple binding sites for host microfilament proteins. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses three functional profilins in a tissue-specific manner. Structural changes in profilin accompany its binding to phosphatidylinositol, 4, 5-bisphosphate. Inhibition of anchorage-dependent cell spreading triggers apoptosis in cultured human endothelial cells. Plant and animal profilins are functionally equivalent and stabilize microfilaments in living animal cells. Mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy: mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. Coordinate induction of the actin cytoskeletal regulatory proteins gelsolin, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, and profilin during capillary morphogenesis in vitro. Effects of antihypertensive drugs on vascular remodeling: do they predict outcome in response to antihypertensive therapy The tandem repeat domain in the Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein controls the rate of actin-based motility, the percentage of moving bacteria, and the localization of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and profilin. Localization of a binding site for phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate on human profilin. Microinjected profilin affects cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells by rapidly depolymerizing actin microfilaments. The effects of aging on pulmonary oxidative damage, protein nitration, and extracellular superoxide dismutase down-regulation during systemic inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with cholesterol levels in the high normal range in humans. Distinct roles of profilin1 in cell morphological changes: microspikes, membrane ruffles, stress fibers, and cytokinesis. Poly(L-proline)-binding proteins from chick embryos are a profilin and a profilactin. Genes preferentially expressed in embryo stomach are predominantly expressed in gastric cancer. Downregulation of profilin with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibits force development during stimulation of smooth 104 Biochemistry muscle. A common theme in the amino acid sequences of actin and many actin-binding proteins

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The centre and the edge: the significance of Australasian hominids to African paleoanthropology. Proceedings of the 8th Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies, Nairobi, September 1977. The skull of Sinanthropus pekinensis: a comparative study of a primitive hominid skull. Describing anatomically modern Homo sapiens: a distinction without a definable difference. Herto and the Neandertals: what can a 160, 000-year-old African tell us about European Neandertal evolution Human Origins, Genome and People of India: Genomic, Palaeontological and Archaeological Perspectives. Origin of modern humans of China viewed from cranio-dental characteristics of late Homo sapiens in China. An X-linked haplotype of Neandertal origin is present among all non-African populations. Genes, fossils and culture: an overview of the evidence for Neandertal-modern human interaction and admixture. Analysis of Aurignacian interstratification at the Chatelperronian-type site and implications for the behavioral modernity of Neandertals. Zilhao J, Trinkaus E, Constantin S, Milota, Gherase M, Sarcina L, Danciu A, Rougier H, Quiles J, Rodrigo R. Chapter 12 the Paleobiology of Modern Human Emergence Erik Trinkaus Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. In evolutionary time, the final transition from late archaic to modern humans took place relatively rapidly, in 10 ka in many regions where the dating is sufficiently precise and in < 50 ka in all regions for which sufficient fossils exist. Since the general recognition in the late nineteenth century of a sequence of Paleolithic technocomplexes in western Eurasia and that the Neandertals both preceded modern humans in time and were an extinct group of humanity, the inherent superiority of modern human biology has been taken for granted. This has been implicit, sometimes explicit, independent of whether the phylogenetic interpretations were in terms of population conti nuity between late archaic and early modern humans or involved the emergence of modern human biology in one region and its subsequent replacement of late archaic human biology elsewhere. At times, archeological manifestations of this evolutionary advantage were cited, mostly reflecting the cultural and technological elaborations of the Upper Paleolithic (sensu lato), and occasional inferences from human biology were made to account for the superiority of modern humans (or as often the inferiority of late archaic humans). These issues were reformulated a quarter of a century ago into an explicit question as to why modern human anatomy became the dominant form of human biology within a relatively short evolutionary time in the Late Pleistocene. This coincided with a refocus on Late Pleistocene human paleontology and combined with an emphasis in Paleolithic arche ology on the behavioral implications of the archeological record. Since then, perspectives on the paleobiology of modern human emergence have evolved. The same issues remain, but many of the inferences that appeared straightforward are now less readily apparent. It is therefore appropriate to reassess the changes in human behavior, as reflected principally in the Origins of Modern Humans: Biology Reconsidered, Second Edition. These considerations follow a review of the changes of the past quarter century in the framework for such assessments. The last in particular laid out most of the key paleontological issues for the subsequent decades. Adequate dating and/or diagnostic morphology of early modern humans in Africa was then rare, but it was supported by early ages available for the Omo-Kibish fossils (Butzer et al. Extant human molecular data only played a role at the end of the 1980s (Cann et al.

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Encephalopathy: Any of the metabolic, toxic, neoplastic, or degenerative diseases of the brain. Encoding: the processing of information in such a way that it can be represented internally, for memory storage. Sometimes the child has failed to gain bowel control, and sometimes the child has gained control but becomes encopretic again later. There may be a variety of associated psychiatric symptoms, and there may be smearing of faeces. Encounter group: A form of sensitivity training that emphasizes the experiencing of individual relation ships within the group and that minimizes intelle ctual and didactic input. It is a group that focuses on the present, rather than concerning itself with the present or outside problems of its members. Endogenous: A term introduced into psychiatry by Mobius in 1893 for the purposes of etiological, clinical classification to designate those mental disorders caused primarily by hereditary and constitutional factors, originating within the soma or the central nervous system. The precise mean ings of endogeny and exogeny are, however, too arbitrary to justify more than a provisional distinc tion. Endorphin: A naturally produced chemical with morphine-like action; usually found in the brain and associated with the relief of pain. Engineering psychology: the application of psycho logy to man-machine interact ion. It includes the selection and training of people to operate machines, and advice on the design of machines so that they can be efficiently used by human operators. Engram: A memory trace a neurophysiologic process that accounts for persistence of memory. Engulfment: Term used by Laing (1960) to describe a form of anxiety suffered by persons who lack primary ontological security in which relationships with others are experiences as overwhelming threats to their identity. Enkephalins: One of the major families of endogenous opioids, the other being the endorphins. The enkephalins are pentapeptides; their two natural forms (met and leu) differ from each other only in terminal aminoacid; see endorphins. Enlightenment effects: the effects of a given psycho logical theory on those who came to understand its premises and predictions. The most celebrated form of enlightenment effect is the self fulfilling prophecy initially described by Morton. Enuresis: A disorder, most common in children, in which the main manifestation is a persistent involuntary voiding of urine by day or night which 138 Dictionary of Psychology & Allied Sciences is considered abnormal for the age of the individual. Sometimes the child will have failed to gain bladder control and in other cases he or she will have gained control and then lost it. The concept of environment is usually used to include physical surroundings and their characteristics and social contexts and interactions, but it may be used more specifically in include all the different dacets of the physical but to exclude the social. Environmental determinism: the view that behaviour, personality, or psychological characteristics originate as a direct consequence of individual learning and environment influences, and are not significantly influenced by innate factors. Environmental psychology: the study of the ways that the environment influences and channels individual behaviour. Environmental psychology includes the study of such factors as territoriality and personal space, ergonomic design, and the physical attributes of surroundings. Environmentalism: the doctrine that all significant determinants of behaviour are to be found in the environment. These were proposed as the two main underlying individual differences in personality; each repre senting several second-order traits. Epidemiology: In psychiatry, the study of the incidence, prevalence, control, and distribution of mental disorders within a particular population.

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Within two years the population of mental hospital began to fall after rising steadily in most industrial countries for 150 years. The English hospitalisation rate in 1986 was 128/100, 000 and the number of beds was reckoned to be dropping by about 4, 000 per annum in early 1993. Comparative number of psychiatric beds per 1, 000 population (Walsh & Daly, 2004) 1961 2001 Republic of Ireland 7. High rates were also associated with old age, single male and unskilled worker status. One-quarter of alcohol and the same fraction of substance-dependence admissions were for less than 7 days, whereas as the same fraction of depressives were in hospital for 1-3 months. There was a large disparity in rates of bed/100, 000 in 2001 between different health board areas (range 271. For the first time, 2003 saw admissions to general hospital psychiatric units (44%) surpass those to psychiatric hospitals (38%). Britain, especially its cities, has had to deal with culturally diverse groups presenting with psychiatric difficulties for much longer. Among the reasons cited for such high bed occupancy rates (125% in 1997) in London are concentrations of ethnic minorities with a high incidence of psychosis, unemployment, social isolation and deprivation, and homelessness. There is a great need to develop readily accessible interpretation services (incl. The Inspector of Mental Health services emphasised that psychiatric units in general hospitals had still not replaced some large psychiatric hospitals in 2008. Recommendations for such a move date at least to the Commission of Enquiry on Mental Illness in 1966 but the idea is much older having been broached by Conolly Norman (1853-1908) of the Richmond Asylum in Dublin in 1904. Longer stays in private facilities but more readmissions in health board hospitals and general hospital psychiatric units (72%) than in private units (59%). Schizophrenia admissions = 9%, 20% and 23% to private, general hospital, health board respectively. The number of approved posts at senior/specialist registrar level on 1/2/2002 = total 30 (general adult, 14; child/adolescence, 7; old age, 4; intellectual disability, 2; and 1 each for substance misuse, forensic, & rehabilitation). Consultant/population ratio varied from 1/9808 in East Coast Area Health Board (this includes St John of God private sector) to 1/18154 in North-Eastern Health Board. There were 10 permanent part-time consultants and 60 approved non-permanent consultants. Comhairle na nOspideal (2004a): 5 additional consultant posts were approved in 2003. Consultant/population ratio varied from 1/10, 360 in Northern Area Health Board to 1/18136 in Southern Health Board. There were 14 permanent part-time consultants and 53 approved non-permanent consultants. The percentage net increases per specialty during 1993-2003 were emergency medicine 292, pathology 81, radiology 72, general medicine 70, paediatrics 68, psychiatry 47, surgery 35, and obstetrics/gynaecology 20; the average increase was 56%. Comhairle na nOspideal (2004b): the recommended number of posts were: general adult 1/25, 000; special interest [s. Irish College of Psychiatrists (2005) Funding on mental health services accounted for just 6. Medical Council (2007) 3241 All admissions rate = 701/100, 000 aged 16 years or over; first admission rate = 195. Half, 32%, and 19% of all admissions were to general hospital psychiatric units, psychiatric hospitals (incl. Admissions M = F, but rate of all admission higher for F and rate of first admission higher for M. Cause of all and first admissions by diagnostic group as %: depressive (28, 31), schizophrenia (19, 12), and alcoholism (13, 14). Involuntary admissions = 11% of all and 10% of first admissions; only 2% of all private admissions were involuntary. Services should be close to people in need, 3248 and must recognise the needs of special groups.

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Izuchenie mustierskoi stoyanki i pogrebenia neandertaltsa v grote Teshik-Tash, Yuzhnyi Uzbekistan, Srednyaya Azia. Activity, climate and postcranial robusticity: implications for modern human origins and scenarios of adaptive change. The Neanderthal dead: exploring mortuary variability in Middle Paleolithic Eurasia. In: Akazawa T, Aoki K, Bar-Yosef O, editors, Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. Chronological, paleoecological and taphonomical aspects of the Middle Paleolithic site of Qafzeh, Israel. On the differences between two pelvises of Mousterian context from the Qafzeh and Kebara caves, Israel. Morphological variation in Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens in the Levant: a biogeographic model. Medial mandibular ramus: ontogenetic, idiosyncratic, and geographic variation in recent Homo, great apes, and fossil hominids. Opening the stone: a multivariate reassessment of the Neandertal status of the Teshik-Tash child. Postcranial robusticity in Homo I: temporal trends and mechanical interpretations. The Roc de Marsal Neandertal child: a reassessment of its status as a deliberate burial. The Neanderthal type site revisited: interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany. Paleolithic hominin remains from Eshkaft-e Gavi (southern Zagros Mountains, Iran): description, affinities, and evidence for butchery. Temperature alters solute transport in growth plate cartilage measured by in vivo multiphoton microscopy. An ectocranial lesion on the Middle Pleistocene human cranium from Hulu Cave, Nanjing, China. Experimental tests of Middle Palaeolithic spear points using a cali brated crossbow. Neandertal and early modern human behavioral variability: A regional-scale approach to the lithic evidence for hunting in the Levantine Mousterian. Behavioral differences between Middle and Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens in the East Mediterranean Levant: the roles of interspecific competition and dispersal from Africa. Climatically-forced extinctions of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the east Mediterranean Levant. Behavioral interpretations of changes in craniofacial morphology across the archaic/ modern Homo sapiens transition. Circum-Mediterranean biological connections and pattern of Late Pleistocene human evolution. The adaptive basis of Neandertal facial form, with some thoughts on the nature of modern human origins. Biomechanical analysis of masticatory system configuration in Neandertals and Inuits. Neandertal cervical vertebrae with special attention to the Shanidar Neandertals from Iraq. The Neanderthal skeletal remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraq: a summary of findings to date. Increase in length of leg relative to trunk in Japanese children and adults from 1957 to 1977: comparison with British and with Japanese Americans. Biochronology of the Middle Palaeolithic and dispersal events of hominids in the Levant.

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An at-risk population is a group of people within a population who are at risk of developing a particular disorder. Absolute risk is the incidence rate of the disease among people exposed to an agent, assuming that non exposure does not increase risk. It is best to compare the risk of disorder among exposed persons under investigation with those not so exposed. Relative risk is the ratio of the incidence rate in the exposed group to that in the non-exposed group. It measures the proportionate increase (decrease if agent is protective) in disorder/disease rates of the exposed group. Lastly, attributable risk is the difference between the incidence rates in the exposed and non-exposed 606 groups, in other words the risk attributable to the factor being investigated. Exposure to the putative cause must always 607 precede onset of the disorder (time sequence consideration). The spatial distribution of the disorder should be similar to that of the suspected cause. The incidence of disorder should correlate with the amount and duration of exposure to the suggested cause. However, failure to find such consistency may be due to differences in study design. Also, this may be a tall order in a discipline characterised by multifactorial aetiologies. According to Marshall ea, (2000) people who devise new scales for their study are more likely to report statistically significant results than are those using scales that are already standardised and known. A risk factor is not necessarily synonymous with a cause: it may be a marker of another causal process or a causal factor itself. Disorders, such as suicide, schizophrenia or arterial hypertension, are often associated with numerous risk factors. Multiple measures of outcome increase the likelihood of unearthing a statistically significant difference purely as a result of chance. A mediator is a variable that accounts completely or in part for the statistical relation found between a risk factor and a disorder. Prevention in the community the goals of prevention are to reduce the incidence (onset), prevalence (duration) and residual disability associated with a disorder. The prevalence of mental illness is so high that the mental health workforce cannot help everyone. To date, efforts to improve public understanding lag behind those for other common illnesses. Most people believe 608 that antidepressants are addictive and want counselling instead. Investigators should seek advice on statistics at the study design stage and not when an amorphous mass of data has been collected! The power of a study, in statistical jargon, refers to the probability that a type 2 error (Q. Prevalence means the total number of cases in a particular population at a given point in time (point prevalence) or over a period of time (period prevalence). A sample of prevalent cases will give an over representation of chronic, poor prognosis cases. Statistics derives from the German Staat, a State, because the State required information in order to guide policy. He should not be confused with the French surgeon Antoine Louis (1723-1792) of Angle of Louis fame.

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The researchers found that: Left ventricular function after smoking one tobacco cigarette was significantly undermined. The echocardiography exam detected four parameters which indicate worsening function. Left ventricular function after using an electronic cigarette for 7 minutes was not significantly worsened. Dr Farsalinos said: "Diastolic dysfunction is very important because it is usually the first defect that is detected before any clinically-evident cardiac disease develops. More clinical studies need to be done before suggesting that this is a revolutionary product. However, considering the extreme hazards associated with cigarette smoking, currently available data suggest that electronic cigarettes are far less harmful and substituting tobacco with electronic cigarettes may be beneficial to health. Electronic cigarettes, also known as E-cigarettes or vaporizer cigarettes are cigarette like devices that emit vapor instead of smoke. The e-cigarette user can inhale vaporized nicotine or non-nicotine vaporized solutions. Tobacco smoke is known to have over 4, 000 different types of chemicals, a high proportion of which are bad for human health. Electronic cigarette makers, and a growing number of users say the device provides a very similar sensation to inhaling tobacco smoke. Written by Christian Nordqvist Copyright: Medical News Today Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today Additional References Citations Visit our smoking / quit smoking section for the latest news on this subject. If you write about specific medications or operations, please do not name health care professionals by name. Please enter the words exactly as they appear, including capital letters and punctuation. Contact Our News Editors For any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form. Please send any medical news or health news press releases to: pressrelease@medicalnewstoday. Moreover, we showed by microdialysis in mice that behavioral sensitization induced by compounds belonging to main groups of drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine, cocaine, morphine, or alcohol, was underlain by sensitization of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons. Here, this neurochemical sensitization was tested after nicotine, tranylcypromine, or a mixture of both compounds. Data indicate that, whereas neither repeated nicotine nor repeated tranyl cypromine alone has any effect by itself, a repeated treatment with a mixture of nicotine and tranylcypromine induces both behavioral sensitization and sensitization of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons. For example, although psychostimulants Tobacco is a potent reinforcing agent in humans, and nicotine is and opiates induce a substantial locomotor hyperactivity both in generally considered to be the major compound responsible for rats and mice, nicotine is a weak locomotor stimulant in rats and its addictive properties (Dani and Heinemann, 1996; Balfour et fails to induce locomotor hyperactivity in mice with the excep al. Moreover, repeated nicotine treatments in rats induce a behavioral sensitization that vanishes quicker than for other drugs of abuse (Ksir et al. We thank Patricia Cougnot and Robert Poulhe for skillful penter, 1962; Breyer-Pfaff et al. The reactivity of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons Mice were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg; Sanofi was tested by measuring the cortical increase of extracellular nor Sante Animale) and placed in a stereotaxic frame (Kopf Instruments). The coordinates for the guide development of this hyperreactivity is unrelated to dopaminergic cannula tip were as follows: anteroposterior, 2. This neurochemical sensitization, which seems specific to addictive compounds, is strongly corre Microdialysis experiments lated with the sensitization of the behavioral response. Furthermore, because tra lected during 100 min, to determine basal extracellular values. In understand why, in our experimental model in mice, repeated the last series of experiments, 100 min after tranylcypromine injection, injections of nicotine alone do not induce these sensitizations. Every day after drug injection, mice were immediately placed D-amphetamine sulfate p-chloroamphetamine hydrochloride, N-[2-[4 for2hinthecylindrical compartment used to perform microdialysis. Prazosin hydrochloride (Sigma-Aldrich) was sonicated in water and Biochemistry completed with saline. Itwasdissolvedwithadropoflacticacid, neutralizedwith through a rheodyne valve in the mobile phase circuit. R-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3 liquid chromatography was performed with a reverse-phase column methyl-1-phenyl-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (80 4.

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Recurrence: new episode of illness after a period of complete recovery; preventive (prophylactic) therapy is indicated. Relapse: worsening of symptoms after initial improvement in the index episode; continuation treatment is indicated. Relapse signature: the symptoms shown recurrently by an individual patient in the early stages of relapse. State dependent learning: relative difficulty in retrieving information or behavioural learning during a different mental state. Talking past the point: patient answers question with inappropriate remark that is obviously incorrect but indicates that he understands the question (Unfortunately, the term is sometimes used to refer to tangentiality and Vorbeireden is then used as a synonym for talking past the point instead of the approximate answers-type of definition just given). Transitional object: possession that acts as a comfort in absence of the mother (blanket, doll, etc); associated with Donald Winnicott. Ecstasy: rare; extreme well being, usually kept private, without overactivity; may feel in communion with God; found in epilepsy, mania, and schizophrenia. Diurnal variation of mood: any variation in mood with a consistent 24 hour cycle (such as worse in the morning and improving as the day progresses) that is independent of environmental events and is the same on all days of the week. The rare foreign accent syndrome may occur in patients with lesions of the left frontal cortex. A patient, whose speech is otherwise normal, starts to speak with an accent associated with a country to which he or she has no connection. Perception Mechanism whereby one organises, identifies and confers meaning on ones sensory input (sensation), i. It occurs at the same time as normal 103 perceptions and patients can often distinguish between the two. If pressure is placed on the eyeball and lights are seen there are no lights in the external environment and the relevant sensory organ is being stimulated! However, complaints of seeing visions of other people who speak (especially if they converse with the patient) are not likely to reflect hallucinations; rather they are most likely due to lying (malingered or factitious) or a conversion state. Patients often do not seem to care if they cannot explain whence or from whom hallucinations arise. Hallucinations would be expected to be present no matter whether the blind was raised or lowered. Likewise, if a patient destroyed his tympanic membranes it should not eliminate auditory hallucinations. Somatic hallucinations are sometimes divided into superficial (haptic: touching, tickling; kinaesthetic: movement, joint position; thermic: hot or cold; hygric: wetness) and deep (visceral changes, sexual stimulation, electricity passing through the body) subtypes. Anticholinergic drugs may be associated with visions of bugs crawling on the skin. Gustatory (taste) hallucinations should not be confused with the various tastes produced by drugs. Pseudohallucinations, an imprecise and controversial term that would be better discarded according to some authors, (Taylor, 1981) involve the reporting of hallucination-like experiences but without an identifiable percept: he may saw he sees things that are not there but is unable to describe an actual specific perception; they are less vivid and realistic than hallucinations, are often located inside the head (internal 104 space), and often coincide with true hallucinations. It should be remembered that visual hallucinations due to disease of the central pathways of the visual apparatus are 105 rare. Hypnagogic (going to sleep) and hypnopompic hallucinations (on waking) occur when the level of consciousness is between waking and sleep, and they are often normal. Lilliputian or microptic hallucination Bright, funny, everything is much reduced in size Aetiology: Alcohol Anaesthetics Enteric fever Scarlatina Delirium tremens small, obscene and abusive creatures (Sims, 2003, p. Epstein-Barr virus) and lesions of the non-dominant parietal area A reflex hallucination occurs when one sensory modality is excited and the cause is irritation in another. A functional hallucination is provoked by a stimulus and occurs in the same sensory modality as the stimulus; both the stimulus and hallucination are perceived at the same time and are also perceived as being distinct.