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The proof of this proposition depends on some technical results in category theory, rather orthogonal from the rest of this book, so we will not give expository background. Our main reference are Adamek and Rosicky (1994) and Kashiwara and Schapira (2006). Recall that the mod ule sheaves for a sheaf of rings on a site is presentable and hence accessible. C Consider the following two functors: F: ModC > Vectsm, the forgetful functor, and 1 G:= G C: ModC > Vectsm, which sends a C module V to the 1-forms valued in V, 1 , and then views C it as a smooth vector space. The functor 1 is a left adjoint from Mod to itself and hence preserves all col C C imits, so the composite G also preserves ltered colimits and is hence accessible. A morphism in Ins(F, G) is a commuting square f F(V) G(V) F G f0 F(V0) G(V0) with: V > V0 a morphism in Mod. It is accessible C because the inserter of two accessible functors is accessible (see Theorem 2. This equation can be used to produce the category of C modules with connection, as follows. Consider the following two functors: 0 F: Ins(F, G) > Vectsm, the functor which sends a pre-connection r: V > 1 V to the smooth vector C space C F(V), where this tensor product is in Vect; and sm 0 G: Ins(F, G) > Vectsm, which sends r to F(1 V), the underlying smooth vector space of the 1-forms C valued in V. Note that the forgetful functor P: Ins(F, G) > ModC is itself ac cessible (see Remark 2. These functors F0, G0 are accessible because they are compositions of P with the accessible functors F, G, and tensoring with C. The trans formation sends a pre-connection (V, r) to the map of smooth vector spaces (r): C F(V) > F(1 V) C. The equier of F0, G0, , and , denoted Eq(F0, G0, , ), is the full subcate gory of Ins(F, G) consisting of objects r on which (r) = (r). The category of C modules with at connections can likewise we constructed as an equier, since a connection is at exactly when its curvature is zero. Here the functors are F00, G00: Eq(F0, G0, , ) > Vect, where F00(r: V > 1 V) = sm C F(V) the underlying smooth vector space of V and G00(r) = F(2 V). These C are accessible functors, for reasons identical to the preceding constructions. The natural transformations, 0 0: F00 G00 are 0(r) =, the curvature of the r connection, and 0(r) = 0. Standard constructions on vector spaces, such as tensor product and formation of internal hom spaces, carry over to vector bundles, and also to vector bundles with connection. Then we dene a C module V W by sheafying C the presheaf X 7> C(X, V) C(X, W). When V, W are dierentiable, we C (X) equip this tensor product with the at connection rX,VW:= rX,V IdW + IdV rX,W, which is the usual formula for connections. This symmetric monoidal structure, however, does not have several properties that we desire. Consider evaluating C both sheaves on a point : the sections of the tensor product is C (, C (M) C C (N)) = C (M) R C (N) and that is not equal to C(M N). The usual remedy to this issue is to take the ap propriate completion of this algebraic tensor product, using natural topologies on these spaces. But we know C(X)b C(Y) C(X Y), which is the completion of the bornological tensor product to a convenient vector space. Multilinear maps compose naturally, by feeding the output of one multilinear map into one of the inputs of the next. Altogether, this rich structure is formalized in the notion of a multicategory (see 2.

Syndromes

  • Allergic reactions to medicines (anesthesia) used during surgery
  • Ulcers in the mouth and throat, and similar sores on the feet, hands, and buttocks
  • Amphetamines: 24 to 48 hours
  • Standing on tiptoe to reach something on the top shelf
  • Pale or clay-colored stools
  • Provide different stimuli, such as going to the mall or zoo
  • Bleeding (hemorrhage)
  • Testicular dysfunction
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Screening is done for anyone who develops diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, or another illness caused by atherosclerosis.

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In the occupational setting, an interesting observation concerns the evidence favoring interventions initiated in the sub acute phase of low back pain among working age adults, in order to prevent the transition to chronicity. The present study found that well designed interventions in people having difficulties to return to work after 4 to 8 weeks sick leave are effective on the return to work rate and the number of lost work days, even though they seem to have little impact on pain and functional status. It is therefore urgent that evidence-based guidelines supporting a more prudent use of imaging techniques often futile and possibly harmful for the patient would be strictly implemented in the practice of all physicians who care for chronic low back pain patients. This assertion contrasts with the number of therapeutic procedures registered for low back pain in 2004. Another illustration is the number of surgery performed with arthrodesis (n=7,462, representing more than 4,400,000 euros without hospitalization costs): there is no evidence that this procedure is superior to conservative treatment for low back pain. An invasive procedure as spinal cord stimulation was performed using 392 neurostimulators in 2004 (generating a cost of 3,301,278 euros). The literature review found low-quality evidence to support this procedure, whilst frequent secondary effects have been reported. One challenge is to avoid hospitalizations and in particular invasive interventions and surgery. Surgery in particular should only be considered after careful multidisciplinary assessment of the patient. These recommendations are relevant for all care settings, including the occupational environment. This project highlighted in particular the possible important roles of the occupational physician and of the medical adviser. These roles should be analyzed and possibly redefined if decision makers want to tackle the chronic low back pain problem and the economic consequences of the related sick leave. An enhanced collaboration between treating physicians and occupational physicians and medical advisors seems mandatory. Grading strength of recommendations and quality of evidence in clinical guidelines: report from an American college of chest physicians task force. Low Back Pain Evidence Review London: Royal College of General Practitioners: 1999. Guide to assessing psychosocial yellow flags in acute low back pain: risk factors for long-term disability and work loss. Wellington: Accident Rehabilitation & Compensation Insurance Corporation of New Zealand and the National Health Committee; 1997. A structured evidence based review on the meaning of nonorganic physical signs: Waddell signs. Part I: development of a reliable and sensitive measure of disability in low-back pain. The Oswestry Disability Index revisited: its reliability, repeatability and validity, and a comparison with the St. A new approach to the measurement of quality of life: the patient generated index. Developing a valid and reliable measure of health outcome for patients with low back pain. Assessment of the progress of the back pain patient 1981 Volvo Award in Clinical Science. The test of Lasegue: systematic review of the accuracy in diagnosing herniated discs. A systematic review of the passive straight leg raising test as a diagnostic aid for low back pain (1989 to 2000). European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Reliability of spinal palpation for diagnosis of back and neck pain: a systematic review of the literature. Inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine: a systematic review.

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Additional symptoms (for example arthritis, thrombosis) may increase the likelihood that the diagnosis is correct. In parts of the body, you may see some specialist centres, examination and be treated by several diferent of the small bowel can be carried out specialists. Usually one specialist will using a small, pill-sized camera which is co-ordinate your treatment. A drug called interferon alpha is currently Pentoxyfylline tablets, and dapsone being tested. Generally speaking, though, Do as much as you can but make sure you complementary and alternative therapies rest when you feel you need to. Exercise are relatively well tolerated, but you should such as yoga or Pilates may also help to always discuss their use with your doctor reduce stress, which can trigger a fare-up before starting treatment. For example Dr Ben Pregnancy and arthritis; Sex and Seymour, at the University of Cambridge, arthritis. Talk things over with a friend, relative or your doctor if you do fnd your condition is getting you down. The level of heat and redness in the afected tissues, C-reactive protein in the blood rises and fuid and cells leak into the tissue, in response to infammation and a blood causing swelling. We fund scientifc and medical research into all types of arthritis and We often feature case studies and musculoskeletal conditions. Please send your views to: bookletfeedback@ Everything we do is underpinned arthritisresearchuk. Dorian leafets on many of the drugs used Haskard and revised by Dr Nicola Ambrose, for arthritis and related conditions. To get more actively involved, please call us on 0300 790 0400, email us at enquiries@arthritisresearchuk.

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The gel or ointment can be applied indistinguishable both histologically and clinically. In general, oral application is best ular lesions from lichenoid reactions to dental amalgam. Lichenoid reactions to amalgam do not migrate, they occur In patients with widespread symptomatic lesions, in on mucosal tissue in direct contact with the restoration, and whom direct mucosal application of topical medication they resolve once the amalgam restoration is removed. These solutions can be prepared by a risk appears most common with the erosive and atrophic compounding pharmacy. Patients should be instructed to forms and in cases of lesions of the lateral border of the gargle with 5 mL of the solution for 2 minutes after meals Journal of the Canadian Dental Association September 2002, Vol. After rinsing, the solution should be expecto infection during corticosteroid therapy. The advantage of topical steroid application is that side Other Approaches effects are fewer than with systemic administration. The lowest-potency steroid that proves mechanism of action similar to that of cyclosporine, but is effective should be used. A recent systematic review by the Cochrane group36 of Because the dosage ranges for corticosteroids are wide all published reports of randomized placebo-controlled and patient responses variable, numerous dosing options trials of palliative treatment for patients with symptomatic have been proposed. Signicant response should be observed within one to Even though evidence of the efficacy of these treatment 2 weeks. Because of the possibility of increased risk of malignant Tapering can be accomplished by decreasing the daily dose transformation, periodic reassessment of all patients with of prednisone by 5 mg per week. Patients should be informed that they may expe hyperglycemia and adrenal suppression. Edwards is a resident, department of dental medicine, division of Surg 2000; 58(11):1278-85. Edwards, D epartment of D ental M edicine, Long Island Jewish M edical Center, 270-05 76th Avenue, 25. The treatment of oral aphthous ulceration or erosive lichen the authors have no declared nancial interests in any company manufacturing the types of products mentioned in this article. Fluocinonide in an adhesive base for treatment of oral lichen planus: a References double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Contemporary oral and maxillofa oral lichen planus: review of a novel delivery method in 24 patients. Corticosteroid therapy in general dental T-cell subsets in patients with reticular and atrophic-erosive oral lichen practice. Oral pathology: clinical pathologic correla symptomatic oral lichen planus: a series of 13 cases. Chronic ulcerative stomatitis with stratied epithelium-specic antinuclear antibodies. A retrospective survey of 2021 patients referred to the Toronto Hospital M outh Clinic. Oral lichen planus lesions in contact with amalgam llings: a clinical, histologic, and immunohisto chemical study. Oral lichen planus update: clinical character istics, treatment responses, and malignant transformation. Fritzler Autoantibodies are a very heterogeneous group of antibodies with respect to their specificity, induction, effects, and clinical signifi cance. In case of limited (forme fruste) disease or a single disease manifestation, the detection of serum autoantibodies can play an Autoimmune Diseases important role in raising the suspicion of evolving disease and forecasting prog nosis.

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We remind the reader of some facts from the theory of several complex variables (references for this material are Gunning and Rossi (1965), Forster (1991), and Serre (1953)). Remark: Behnke and Stein (1949) proved that every noncompact Riemann surface is Stein, so the arguments we develop here extend farther than we exploit them. Then, (k 0, 0, k, 0 H ( (X, E), ) = Hol(X, E), k = 0, where Hol(X, E) denotes the holomorphic sections of E on X. We now use a corollary noted by Serre (1953); it is a special case of the Serre duality theorem. Note that we use the Frechet topology on Hol( X, E), obtained as a closed sub space of C(X, E). For X a Stein manifold of complex dimension n, the compactly supported Dolbeault cohomology is (k 0, 0, k, n H (c (X, E), ) =! The Atiyah-Bott lemma (see Lemma D) shows that the inclusion 0, 0, (c (X, E), ),> (c (X, E), ) is a chain homotopy equivalence. If V is an acyclic cochain complex of Frechet spaces, then the dual complex (V ) is also acyclic. We need to show that the i sequence i+1 i i1 (V) > (V) > (V) is exact in the middle. That is, we need to show that if: Vi > C is a continuous linear map, and if d = 0, then there exists some: Vi+1 > C such that i1 = d. However, it is not automatically true that they are the same as topological vector spaces, where we view Im d as a quotient of Vi and Ker d as a subspace of Vi. Here is where we i1 i use the Frechet hypothesis: the open mapping theorem holds for Frechet spaces, and it tells us that any surjective map between Frechet spaces is open. From this, we see that our: Vi > C descends to a continuous linear func tional on Ker d. As it is a closed subspace of Vi+1, the Hahn-Banach theorem i+1 tells us that it extends to a continuous linear functional on Vi+1. These lemmas allow us to understand the cohomology of classical observables just as a vector space. Since we treat classical observables as a dierentiable vector space, however, we are really interested in its cohomology as a sheaf on the site of smooth manifolds. It turns out (perhaps surprisingly) that for X a Stein manifold of dimension n, the isomorphism n 0,! We will present this description for polydiscs, although it works more gener ally. The same denition holds for the space Hol(C, E) of germs on C of holomorphic sections of a holomorphic vector bundle on E. We have the following theorem, describing compactly supported Dolbeault co homology as a dierentiable vector space. Let O(1) denote the holomorphic line bundle on P1 consisting of functions vanishing at P1. Let O(1) n denote the line bundle on (P1)n consisting of functions that vanish at innity in each variable. This isomorphism is invariant under holomorphic symmetries of the polydisc D, under the actions of S 1 by rotation in each coordinate, and under the action r1. For any complex manifold X and holomorphic vector bundle E on X and for any manifold M, the cochain complex C(M, 0,(X, E)) is a ne resolution of the sheaf on M X consisting of smooth sections of the bundle E X that are holomorphic along X. Further, if we assume that Hi(0,(X, E)) = 0 for i > 0, then C(M, Hol(X, E)) if i = 0, i 0, H (C (M, (X, E))) = 0 if i > 0. Locally on X, the Dolbeault-Grothendieck lemma tells us that the sheaf 0,(X, E) has no higher cohomology, and the sheaves C(M, 0,i(X, E)) are certainly ne. An other result of Grothendieck (1952) tells us that for any complete locally con vex topological vector space F, C(M, F) is naturally isomorphic to C(M)b F, where b denotes the completed projective tensor product. In other words, we need to nd an isomorphism between their sections on each manifold M, n 0, 1 1 n C (M, H (c (Dr1.

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In cases with neurologic complications, consists of primary treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, medical therapy is the frst choice again but when indicated, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months followed by combination of medical and surgical treatments yield the four months of therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin (Table best results. Late but the American Thoracic Society recommends 9 months onset paraplegia is best prevented by early diagnosis and of treatment with the same frst drugs consumed for the frst appropriate treatment. In patients who are expected to have two months following by seven months of therapy with severe (>60 degrees) post treatment kyphosis, one of the isoniazid and rifampicin in the continuation phase, while surgical goals in the active stage of treatment should be to the Canadian Thoracic Society recommends a total time of improve kyphosis [37]. Moreover, ultra-short course chemothera have a main role in the recovery and response of patients py. After 4-6 weeks of chemotherapy, cological treatment can prevent severe complications [44]. Medical treatment alone mens have been demonstrated to have excellent results ex even improves the neurological defcit [38]. Thus, generally cept in patients younger than 15 years with an initial angle speaking, surgery is not the most appropriate frst choice of of kyphosis of more than 30 degrees and whose kyphosis treatment in many instances [38]. Combination of rifampicin, isoniazid, Table 2, and indications of medical therapy are demonstrat ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for two months followed by ed in Table 3. Indications of medical treatment (note that the ma dysfunction, painful costopelvic impingement, and paraple jority of cases can be treated non-surgically) gia. It is recommended to perform early surgical interven tion to prevent signifcant spinal instability and neurologic Indications of medical treatment defcit [39]. Single disc space involvement without signifcant vertebral body destruction the higher the grade of the disease, the more association Minimal or no instability there is with the restriction of active neck movement, severe Minimal or no neurologic defcit motor defcit, severe bone destruction (involvement of more Medical co-morbidities such as sepsis or coagulopathy than one Denis vertebral column), and cord compression. They recommended early surgical intervention for all pa Indications of Surgical Intervention tients with grade 3. Indications of surgery (note that medical therapy should always be started as well) Indications of surgery Neurological defcit Emergent surgical intervention should be performed if neurologic defcit exists, unless the defcit is minimal and non progressive or the patient has medical co-morbidities such as sepsis or coagulopathy. If the defcit is minimal the patient should be carefully monitored to detect any progression in the symptoms. Failed medical therapy and progression of disease despite best medical therapy Chronic pain after medical management Prominent deformity Signifcant instability Selected cases of epidural abscess (see Table 5) Table 5. Children may ence of documented mechanical compression, and dynamic need earlier surgical intervention compared to adults due to instability after conservative treatment [45]. Transoral de their growth potential in order to prevent kyphotic defor compression procedures followed by occipitocervical fusion mity [27]. There were no differences in clinical or ra screw fxation has also been advocated [9,68]. Such techniques including posterolateral endoscopic be associated with additional complications [27]. On the other hand, some authors reported preferred in young cases without signifcant co-morbidities series of patients that underwent one-stage anterior inter with either of the following indications: 1) Both anterior body autografting and anterior instrumentation with good and posterior involvement, 2) More than three segments results [68,70,71]. Regarding the type of bone graft, some involved, 3) Signifcant degree of kyphosis associated with authors suggested fresh-frozen allograft and anterior instru overt destruction of one or two vertebral bodies, 4) Thora mentation which is superior to rib grafts in supporting the columbar junction involvement. Although fusion occurs late follow Certainly, to achieve the best results, the surgical treat ing the use of allografts, the grafts remain stable [72]. There is an aver in patients with severe disease to achieve favorable results age increase in kyphosis of 15 degrees in all patients treated [89,91]. Development of neurologic defcit and paraplegia after onset paraplegia and other neurologic complications [9,59]. The traditional two-stage technique children is likely due to the cartilaginous nature of their allows a thorough decompression with the best long term bone. Therefore, they recommended a single posterior approach has been introduced for man regular follow-up and monitoring of these cases until com agement of deformity. In ous progression (type-Ia) and after a lag period of three to another study, Deng et al.

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Stiff man syndrome is associated with small cell lung cancer and breast cancer 1. Second event of unprovoked thrombosis Page 183 of 794 N. Asymptomatic with history of malignancy, that would reasonably metastasize to the lungs 1. Initial staging and any one of the following: Page 185 of 794 1. High clinical suspicion despite a normal chest x-ray Page 186 of 794 3. Monitoring response to chemotherapy every 2 cycles (6 to 8 weeks) for known measurable disease C. Monitoring response to treatment for unresectable or metastatic disease: Page 187 of 794 a. New abnormalities noted on chest x-ray or other imaging Page 188 of 794 D. After completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for presumed surgically resectable disease C. After resection or local therapy Page 189 of 794 C. Monitoring response to chemotherapy every 2 cycles (6 to 8 weeks) for known metastatic or unresected primary disease C. Stage I, low grade sarcoma Page 192 of 794 i. Monitoring response to chemotherapy for known metastatic disease every 2 cycles (6 to 8 weeks) 3. Further imaging is indicated only for any pulmonary signs/symptoms or new chest x-ray abnormalities G. Monitoring response to chemotherapy for known metastatic disease every 2 cycles (6 to 8 weeks) Page 193 of 794 3. Thereafter, chest x-ray every 6 months for 3 years, then annually for 2 more years. Suspected recurrence based on new symptoms, new chest x-ray abnormality, or rising tumor markers C. Monitoring response to chemotherapy only for patients with known bulky (> 5 cm) nodal disease at initial diagnosis every 2 cycles (6 to 8 weeks) C. End of therapy evaluation for patients with known bulky (> 5 cm) nodal disease at initial diagnosis D. Monitoring response to chemotherapy every 2 cycles (6-8 weeks) Page 200 of 794 D. Surveillance: Page 201 of 794 1. Adenocarcinoma within axillary lymph node Page 202 of 794 4. Imaging techniques for detection and management of endoleaks after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, Radiology, 2007; 243:641-655. Page 203 of 794 21. Approach to the Adult Patient with Fever of Unknown Origin, Am Fam Physician, 2003, 68:2223-2229. Evaluation for and diagnosis of lung disease in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), UpToDate. Page 204 of 794 44. Page 205 of 794 51. Page 206 of 794 58.

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Mud brick walls were built upon a few layers of stone to protect the lower areas from water, and then covered in plaster. Roofs were built in typical Levantine style, plastering over reeds and twigs laid over wooden beams. Hayah Katz examines an important piece of what these conquerors left sealed within the rubble: the remains of ancient pottery. Katz offers a peek into the ancient world through the different types of Levantine pot tery, ranging from small bowls to massive storage jars. During the eighth century, pottery as a whole shifted from individual produc tion to an industrialized process. The different types of pottery thus became more standardized, with a lighter shade and more-systematic forms than those of previ ous periods. Understanding the dating and function of these handles is fundamental for any historical reconstruction of late eighth-cen tury Judah. Until recently, the consensus was to date all these handles to the time of Hezekiah, as part of an administrative system put in place to prepare for an Assyrian invasion. But Oded Lipschits argues that the lmlk system began earlier than Hezekiah and that their variations correspond to different stages in their de velopment. The shift from the scarab to the sun-disk corresponds to a shift in iconographic influence from Egyptian to Assyrian culture. Many of the seals were found at Tel Lachish, suggesting that Lachish was itself a distribution center before its destruction at the hands of Sennacherib in 701. Jars filled with agricultural goods would be sent to Lachish from other areas in the kingdom, identified on the seals as Hebron, Ziph, Socoh, and Mamshit. They would be sold for gold and silver, which then covered the cost of the annual tribute imposed by the Assyrians. Vaughn criticizes the new position of Lipschits and others as one primarily from silence and assumption. Thus, Vaughn argues that all the lmlk handles discovered at Lachish show evidence of a late eighth-century origin. In discussing burial practices in eighth-century Judah, Elizabeth Bloch-Smith takes archaeological ev idence and analyzes it in conjunction with biblical and anthropological research. Estimated population numbers for eighth-century Judah suggest the existence of large-scale communal burial sites that have yet to be discovered. From the graves we have been able to study, it seems that burial practices remained relatively standardized during the period. Various smaller-scale rock-cut tombs have been uncovered across the Judahite landscape, and in these tombs, interment appears to have been based on family ties, with items often left with the corpses. It serves as an excellent, if also mysterious, window into eighth-century Judahite religion because of its short span of habitation.

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For example, an Pallor of the neural rim is a useful sign of nonglaucoma optic nerve head with focal loss of the inferior neural rim tous atrophy, with 94% specificity. A diffuse narrowing of the neural rim may show a diffuse decrease in sensitivity of the visual field. Nonglaucomatous changes, such as optic nerve head drusen and retinal scars, may mimic the appearance of glaucomatous visual field defects. Glauco matous eyes with low cup-to-disc ratios have a significantly smaller disc area than normal subjects and glaucoma patients with high cup-to-disc ratios (Fig. The practical clinical appraisal of the optic disc in glaucoma: the natural history of cup progression and some specific disc-field Correlating optic nerve appearance with the visual correlation. Note the narrow inferior neural rim, the peripapillary halo, and the misleadingly low cup-to disc ratio. In the same study, young patients with high to an already extensively cupped optic nerve. The senile-sclerotic and myopic patterns can be the most difficult to identify as Four clinical patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve glaucomatous in the absence of other information, such appearance have been described: focal ischemic, senile as risk factors and visual field and nerve fiber layer sclerotic, hyperbaric, and myopic. Some patients have characteristics that ciated with focal thinning of the neural rim, typically represent a combination of these types, and other pat 118 inferotemporally. Levene has observed a greater degree terns or other phenotypes may yet be described. The of cupping than would be predicted from the amount of identification of phenotypic subtypes of nerve damage visual field loss in patients with low-tension glaucoma in primary open-angle glaucoma may eventually make compared with glaucoma of high-tension type. Intraocular pressure, glau structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to coma, and glaucoma suspects in a defined popula glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Morphometry of the human lamina cribrosa logical and epidemiological study of cataract, glau surface. Optic disc cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle parameters and onset of glaucomatous field loss, I: glaucoma. The optic nerve head in glaucoma: progression and some specific disc-field correlations. Alterations detectable nerve fiber atrophy precedes the onset of in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and glaucomatous field loss. Multivari Age-related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in ate analysis of the risk of glaucomatous visual field human eyes. Prog matous damage and optic nerve head mechanical nostic significance of optic disc cupping in ocular compliance. Variability of ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated automated visual fields in clinically stable glaucoma perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma. Chronic changes in elastic fibres in primary open-angle glau human glaucoma causing selectively greater loss of coma. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma: project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the pathology recapitulates ontogeny. The dynamics and location phology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the of axonal transport blockade by acute intraocular human retina. The by retinal ganglion cells to the dorsal lateral genicu mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental late nucleus. Nocturnal ophthalmic arterial hemody of single retinal ganglion cells in the glaucoma namics in primary open-angle glaucoma. Changes in shapes of sur blood flow in untreated primary open-angle glau viving motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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The sedimentation of particles in a gravitational field was first systematically investigated by Sir G. Stokes showed that when particles settle in a gravitational field under a certain set of conditions, the forces acting on the particle are in perfect balance, and the particle moves at a constant velocity (which can be predicted) after a very brief period of initial acceleration. The particle must be smooth, spherical, and rigid enough to not deform due to the forces acting on it. The particle must be small compared to the container of fluid: the fluid must be essentially infinite in size compared to the size of the particle. The particles which make up the fluid (that is, the molecules) must be much smaller than the settling particle, so that the fluid is essentially homogeneous in how it acts on the particle. The settling speed must be slow enough that all viscous forces come from smooth (non-turbulent) flow. There are two fairly common situations where these conditions are not completely satisfied. Page 64 Non-Spherical Particles the requirement for smooth, spherical particles must be satisfied to get accurate absolute measurements of particle size. Non-spherical particles always settle at a rate which is lower than the rate for a sphere of the same weight, so non-spherical particles are reported as smaller than their correct size. All non-spherical particles can be measured to determine the "equivalent spherical diameter" distribution. While this distribution is not correct in an absolute sense, it does allow accurate comparisons of size for similar samples. So long as the shape of the particles does not change significantly from one sample to the next, the equivalent spherical diameter measurement will be a good representation of the relative particle size, and will allow accurate comparison of different samples. This makes the software calculate a light scattering function that is close to the correct scattering function for the particles. The non-sphericity index is equal to the average aspect ratio for the particle when viewed in all possible orientations. You should reduce the particle density in the procedure definition to compensate for slower than expected sedimentation. A reasonable adjustment is to reduce the density value for the particles according to the following empirical equation: Adjusted Den. In the case of cubic crystals with a density of 2, the adjusted density would be 1. If this density value is entered into the procedure definition, then the reported weight distribution will be very close to the correct weight distribution. The above adjustment works quite well for particles a with non-sphericity index up to 3. Rigid rods that are 5 6 times as long as they are wide have a non-sphericity index of about 3. Brownian Motion Broadening the requirement for a fluid which appears completely "homogeneous" compared to the size of the particle is not completely satisfied when the particle is small enough to exhibit "Brownian motion". Brownian motion is random, irregular motion of very small particles suspended in a liquid. It is caused by momentary unevenness in the impacts of fluid molecules on the surface of the particle. When particles are very small, there is a finite probability that, during a very brief time period, the net force on the particle from molecular impacts on one half of the surface will be greater than on the opposite half of the surface. Page 65 particle to briefly move (appears to "jump") in the direction of the net force. Significant Brownian motion only occurs for particles that are smaller than about 1-2 microns in diameter. Larger particles have enough surface area and enough total mass so that Brownian motion becomes negligible. The individual particles "diffuse" with time according to their size: large particles diffuse very little, small particles diffuse more. Inside the disc centrifuge, a narrow band of particles broadens during the sedimentation at a rate that depends on the particle size. Normally, the rate of diffusion (called the diffusion constant) is proportional to the inverse square root of the particle diameter.

References:

  • https://www.foundationforwomenscancer.org/wp-content/uploads/FWC-Endometrial-Cancer-Your-Guide.pdf
  • https://bwc1972.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/The-Soviet-Biological-Weapons-Program-and-Its-Legacy-in-Todays-Russia.pdf
  • https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00125-017-4207-5.pdf
  • https://www.bellarmine.edu/faculty/dobbins/Secret%20Readings/Lecture%20Notes%20313/Ch38_.pdf