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There is the subjective experience of pressure, which may or may not be resisted, and verbal performance usually exhibits a variety of disorders of the content and form of language. Although pressure of speech is a frequent manifestation of mania and hypomania, its occurrence is not limited to the mood disorders and may be a feature ofschizophrenia or of the organic mental disorders. Afected patients present with varying combinations of dementia, blindness, dysphasia, hemiparesis, ataxia, and focal defcits; death occurs in a matter of months. Cerebral pathology consists in focal loss of myelin and glial cells wifh characteristic inclusions surrounding the areas of myelin loss. To a large extent, the defnition of promiscuous sexual behaviour is dictated by culture, religion, age, and similar factors. Since then the notion has so widened and been so misused as to have been rendered irreclaimably imprecise. Symptoms typical of schizophrenia may or may not be in evidence; if present, such symptoms do not persist. Polymorphic and unstable symptoms are characteristic of the overall clinical picture. The disorder usually has an abrupt onset and often shows an equally rapid resolution of symptoms with no recurrence. S) A cluster of psychotic phenomena that occur during or following substance abuse but are not due to acute intoxication alone and are not part of a withdrawal state. The disorder is characterized by hallucinations (typically auditory, but often in more than one sensory modality), perceptual distortions, delusions (often of a paranoid or persecutory nature), psychomotor disturbances (excitement or stupor), and abnormal afect (ranging from intense fear to ecstasy). The sensorium is usually clear although some degree of clouding of consciousness may be present. Includes alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic jealousy, alcoholic paranoia, and persistent alcohol or drug-induced psychotic state. See also: substance use disorder psychotic disorder, residual and late-onset, alcohol or drug-induced (Flx. Includes alcoholic dementia, chronic alcoholic brain syndrome, dementia and other milder forms of persisting cognitive impairment, fashbacks, post-hallucinogen perception disorder, residual afective disorder, and residual disorder of personality and behaviour. See also: substace use disorder 84 Definitions of terms psychotic disorders, acute and transient (F23) i ill-defed term applied to disorders characterized by the acute onset of psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and perceptual disturbances, and by the severe disruption of ordinary behaviour, in the absence of evidence of organic causation. Includes mild mental and behavioural dsorders (such as postnatal depression) and severe mental and behavioural disorders (such as puerperal psychosis). The psychoses are mostly of brief duration, often but not always remitting with the recession of the provoking factor. Their form and content tend to reflect the nature of the precipitat and to fall into three broad clinical categories: disorders of consciousness (confusional), disorders of afect (depression), and delusional disorders (paranoid). Reading comprehension skill, reading word recognition, oral reading skill, and performance of tasks requiring reading may all be afected. Spelling difculties are frequently associated with specifc reading disorder and often continue into adolescence even after some progress has been made in reading. Specifc developmental disorders of reading are commonly preceded by a history of disorders in speech or language 85 Lexicon of psychiatric and mental health terms development. Synonyms: backward reading; developmental dyslexia; legasthenia; specifc reading retardation reading word recognition the ability to identify the words that one is reading, even though they may appear within a context that is unfamiliar. One of the unwanted efects of the alkaloid is the precipitation of a depressive state. Synonyms: Ekbom syndrome; tachyathetosis Restzustand (schizophrenic) See schizophrenia, residual.

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Kleine-Levin Atypical depression and substance use must be ruled out syndrome: a systematic review of 186 cases in the literature. A menstruation-linked is generally supportive, though certain stimulant medica periodic hypersomnia: Kleine-Levin syndrome or new clinical entity. Report functional imaging studies and long-term neuropsychological of a case and review of the literature. The syndrome of periodic somnolence Kleine-Levin syndrome: functional imaging correlates of hypersomnia and morbid hunger (Kleine-Levin syndrome). Recurrent hypersomnias: tion of striatal dopamine transporter availability during the symptom a review of 339 cases. Kleine-Levin syndrome: a systematic Corresponds to Strong Neural Activation in Working Memory in Kleine study of 108 patients. Brain and effort: brain activation objective method for assessing the therapeutic result in a case of peri and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients odic hypersomnia (Kleine-Levin syndrome)]. Klein-Levin syndrome: A cause of diagnostic of Kleine-Levin syndrome with localized encephalitis. Carbamazepine for Kleine-Levin Increased cerebrospinal fuid 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyin syndrome. A Practical Guide to the Therapy of Narcolepsy and Hyper Pharmacological treatment for Kleine-Levin syndrome. Nature and Science of Sleep Dovepress Publish your work in this journal Nature and Science of Sleep is an international, peer-reviewed, open original research, clinical & epidemiological studies, reviews & evalu access journal covering all aspects of sleep science and sleep medicine, ations, case reports and extended reports. The manuscript management including the neurophysiology and functions of sleep, the genetics of system is completely online and includes a very quick and fair peer sleep, sleep and society, biological rhythms, dreaming, sleep disorders and review system, which is all easy to use. Lavie2 Department of Neurology, Sapir Medical Center, Meir General Hospital, Kfar Saba, the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 1 and the Sleep Laboratory, B. In 4 patients, hypersomnolence was accompanied by hyperphagia and hypersexuality, while in the remaining 4, recurrent hypersomnia was the only symptom. Polysomnographic recordings from 3 patients inbetween attacks, and from one patient during an attack, showed relatively normal sleep structure with decreased sleep efficiency due to numerous awakenings from sleep stage 2. Besides the recurrent hypersomnia, all patients enjoyed good health, with no evidence of behav ioral or endocrine dysfunction. Abnormal behaviors four either refused to be studied in the sleep laboratory, or are also characteristic. Based on the International could not be sent for recordings due to various technical Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3 a monosymptomatic reasons. In one girl, a recording was performed during a form of the syndrome with recurrent hypersomnia appear hypersomnolent attack, and in three others, inbetween ing without binge eating and hypersexuality also exists. Hospital admission and outpatient charts were reviewed Critchley, in 1962, reported on 11 male patients, and then and details of the clinical and laboratory work-up were tab reviewed 15 additional young boys from the literature. Age At Diagnostic Number Mean Hyper Hyper Precipit Onset delay Of Duration Of A phagia Sexuality ating Factor (Years) (years) Attacks Single Attack (Days) 1 21 1 9 3 + + fever 2** 9 2. In all patients, the Four girls experienced a febrile illness heralding some of frequency of attacks progressively diminished, and in some the attacks. Since data were col the neurological examination of all patients during numer lected over a long period of time, and were opportunistic in ous hospitalizations, prior to, and at the time of the final nature, we did not compare them to a planned comparison diagnosis, was always normal. An extensive search for metabolic, cents, and on unpublished data for similar-age normal ado toxic, and endocrine etiologies was negative. Data of the patient recorded during an attack showed: total sleep 489 min, sleep efficiency 87. Endocrinological and polysomnographic findings in Kleine Levin syndrome: no evidence for Literature hypothalamic and circadian dysfunction. Proc Aust Assoc the comprehensive literature search and the comparison Neurol 1973;9:67-72.


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Fifty three ongoing research projects from 19 countries are reported on leave policies and related issues, ranging from cross-national studies to studies undertaken for doctoral theses. Current leave and other employment-related policies to support parents Note on federal and state industrial relations systems and awards: In Australia, the employment conditions of employees in federal and state jurisdictions have traditionally been detailed in awards, which are prescriptive documents determined by industrial tribunals that usually cover an occupation or industry. Since the mid-1990s, industrial relations legislation has facilitated the spread of enterprise-level collective agreements, which often use the relevant award as a benchmark of minimum standards, but may specify additional employment conditions. As part of the Fair Work Act 2009, the national independent workplace relations tribunal (the Fair Work Commission) has replaced more than 1500 state and federal awards with 122 industry and occupation awards (known as modern awards). The Fair Work Act also put in place a set of ten National Employment Standards that prescribe the minimum set of entitlements for employees: these include standards relating to unpaid Parental leave (which has been an entitlement under federal industrial relations legislation since 1994) and flexible working arrangements (see below). Specific minimum conditions for industry are set out in modern awards and some of the National Employment Standards may also be replicated in modern awards or enterprise agreements. Since 1990 Leave entitlements in relation to the birth or adoption of a child under Australian labour regulation have been written in gender-neutral terms and are generally referred to as Parental leave, rather than Maternity or Paternity leave. However, see 1c for details of the unpaid Parental leave entitlement under the Fair Work Act, which provides for each 58 Please cite as: Whitehouse, G. Historically, many female employees have also had access to employer-paid Maternity leave through industrial awards, workplace agreements, company policies, or legislation covering public sector employees. In spite of this increase there remains considerable variation across industries, with only 17. Under the Paid Parental Leave scheme, partners taking a primary carer role may also share the Parental Leave Pay entitlement. This payment must be taken while on unpaid leave (such as that available under the Fair Work Act unpaid Parental leave provisions) and is non-transferrable. Employer-paid Paternity leave may also be available to some fathers and partners through company policies, industrial instruments or legislation covering public sector employees. The amount of paid leave that is granted also varies significantly across employers (see later comments) and, as for employer-paid Maternity leave, organisational policies may not deliver the same entitlement to all employees within the organisation. Parental leave Length of leave Under the relevant National Employment Standard in the Fair Work Act, each parent who meets the eligibility requirements is entitled to 12 months unpaid Parental leave; this leave is an individual entitlement. That period can be extended by a further 12 months if the employer agrees, with the limitation that a couple cannot exceed a total of 24 months between the two working parents per birth. When both members of a couple are entitled to unpaid parental leave under the National Employment Standard, they can take three weeks of their unpaid parental leave at the same time, starting immediately after the birth, or by agreement with their employer, within the period up to six weeks after the birth. Other forms of paid leave such as annual leave and long service leave can also be used. However, for each period of paid leave used, the unpaid Parental leave entitlement is reduced by the same amount so that the maximum time available for Parental leave per family is still two years. The government funded 18 weeks Parental Leave Pay is designed to be paid during the unpaid Parental leave entitlement period: it does not reduce or extend the duration of unpaid Parental leave available as it is an entitlement to pay rather than to leave. In some circumstances it can transferred to the father or other primary carer; the 18 weeks pay is, therefore, a family entitlement that initially goes to the mother. The average duration of provisions among large organisations was recently reported as 9. Flexibility in use Under the National Employment Standard in the Fair Work Act, only one parent is entitled to access unpaid Parental leave at any particular time. The exception allowing some flexibility is immediately following the birth (or adoption) of the child, when parents may take concurrent unpaid leave for up to three weeks (see footnote 61).

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If an infection is present, there is usually an increased white blood cell count along with increased bacterial count but if urine is contaminated, the white blood cell is often low. When bacteria is found in the urine, the nitrite test may help to indicate if infection is actually present, but the definitive test is culture and sensitivity. A urinary infection is usually characterized by >100, 000 of one organizer per mL urine while finding multiple different bacteria usually results from contamination of the specimen. Yeast may also be present in the urine and can be derived from contamination from vaginal secretions. Yeast cells may, in some cases, be difficult to differentiate from red blood cells or other cells. Diabetic patients often have frequent urinary yeast infections because of glucose in the urine. Parasites are rarely found in urine, with the exception of Trichomonas, which usually derives from genital contamination although it can arise from visceral or prostate colonization in rare cases. The most commonly observed are herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and polyoma virus. Males may have residual drainage of sperm that contaminates the urine while females have vaginal contamination. Some labs do not routinely report sperm found in urine, but since it may be indicative of sexual abuse in children, any findings in children or in suspected rape cases should be reported. Mucous Mucous threads are commonly found in urine and are usually benign as mucous cells are found throughout the urinary system. Broad casts are often present with significant reduction in the functional capacity of the nephron and severe renal damage or "end stage" renal disease. Hyaline casts are the most common and some may be normal, but evidence of other types of casts indicates a need for follow-up testing. A few hyaline casts (the most common type) are normal, but all other casts need to be evaluated. Granular casts develop when cellular cast/debris remains in the nephron for an extended period. At first, the granular casts are course, but if they remain longer before being flushed out of the kidney by urine, they degenerate to a fine granular cast and finally to a waxy cast. A large pigmented granular cast (dirty brown) may indicate ischemic tubular necrosis. White blood cell casts usually contain neutrophils and are found in diseases that active C3 factor, such as pyelonephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, and some glomerular diseases. Red blood cell casts are of particular significance because they usually indicate glomerular bleeding from glomerulonephritis. Red blood cell casts are often found in conjunction with proteinuria and hematuria. Hemoglobin casts may occur with hemolysis (such as from malaria) and myoglobin casts from breakdown of muscle tissue (crush syndrome), but these casts usually are filtered into the urine from the blood rather than developing in the urinary system. Fatty casts may occur with nephrotic syndrome and are usually associated with proteinuria although they may occur in healthy individuals. Crystals Some forms of crystals appear in the urine of healthy individuals and most crystals, except for cystine, are not considered clinically significant. Freshly voided urine specimens are often devoid of crystals, but alkalization and refrigeration may promote crystal formation. While crystals are found in kidney stones, the presence of crystals in the urine does not necessarily relate to stone formation. Cystine crystals, however, are found only in patients with cystinuria, a genetic impairment of tubular reabsorption of basic amino acids (lysine, arginine, ornithine, and cystine). Other urine testing There are many other urinary constituents that are measured to establish a diagnosis or to monitor treatment. Values given (adult) are for reference only and may vary from one lab to another, depending on the procedures and equipment used for testing. Electrolytes: Calcium and chloride Test Discussion Calcium (Normal values: 100-300 mg/24 hours if on average diet, but 50-150 mg/24 hours on low-calcium diet) Both serum and urine testing may be done for calcium to assess parathyroid gland dysfunction.

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Patients with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis, moderate or severe ascites; history of hepatic encephalopathy; a history of autoimmune disease; administration of a live, attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks prior to randomization; administration of systemic immunostimulatory agents within 4 weeks or systemic immunosuppressive medications within 2 weeks prior to randomization; or untreated or corticosteroid-dependent brain metastases were excluded. Tumor assessments were performed every 6 weeks for the first 54 weeks and every 9 weeks thereafter. The demographics and baseline disease characteristics of the study population were balanced between the treatment arms. The majority of patients were Asian (57%) or White (35%); 40% were from Asia (excluding Japan). Advise patients to immediately contact their health care provider for high fever, rigors, persistent or severe abdominal pain, severe constipation, or vomiting [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Surgery and Wound Healing Complications: Avastin can increase the risk of wound healing complications. Instruct patients not to undergo surgery without first discussing this potential risk with their healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Advise patients to immediately contact their health care provider for signs and symptoms of serious or unusual bleeding including coughing or spitting blood [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Arterial and Venous Thromboembolic Events: Avastin increases the risk of arterial and venous thromboembolic events. Advise patients to immediately contact their health care provider for signs and symptoms of arterial or venous thromboembolism [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Advise patients that they will undergo routine blood pressure monitoring and to contact their healthcare provider if they experience changes in blood pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Advise patients to immediately contact their health care provider for new onset or worsening neurological function [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Renal Injury and Proteinuria: Avastin increases the risk of proteinuria and renal injury, including nephrotic syndrome. Advise patients that treatment with Avastin requires regular monitoring of renal function and to contact their health care provider for proteinuria or signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider immediately for signs or symptoms of infusion-related reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Congestive Heart Failure: Avastin can increase the risk of developing congestive heart failure. Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Advise female patients that Avastin may cause fetal harm and to inform their healthcare provider with a known or suspected pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Advise patients of potential options for preservation of ova prior to starting treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Avastin and for 6 months after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8. Kjeldsen (Norway), Reinhold Kreutz (Germany), Stephane Laurent (France), Gregory Y. Schmieder (Germany), Evgeny Shlyakhto (Russia), Costas Tsioufis (Greece), Victor Aboyans (France), Ileana Desormais (France) * Corresponding authors. Councils: Council for Cardiology Practice, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions, Council on Cardiovascular Primary Care, Council on Hypertension, Council on Stroke. Working Groups: Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, Coronary Pathophysiology and Microcirculation, e-Cardiology. Kroon (The Netherlands), Christophe Leclercq (France), Dragan Lovic (Serbia), Empar Lurbe (Spain), Athanasios J.

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The oral dose of 810 mg/kg/day to rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenicity was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 1. Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure). The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate. The safety of levofloxacin in pediatric patients treated for more than 14 days has not been studied. The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following a single intravenous dose were investigated in pediatric patients ranging in age from six months to 16 years. Pediatric patients cleared levofloxacin faster than adult patients resulting in lower plasma exposures than adults for a given mg/kg dose [see Indications and Usage (1. However, the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders were calculated using all reported events during the specified period for all children enrolled regardless of whether they completed the 1-year evaluation visit. Most of the musculoskeletal disorders in both groups involved multiple weight bearing joints. No child had a severe or serious disorder and all musculoskeletal disorders resolved without sequelae. In addition to the events reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, events reported in adults during clinical trials or post-marketing experience [see Adverse Reactions (6)] may also be expected to occur in pediatric patients. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Of these, 1, 081 patients (14%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 864 patients (12%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The majority of fatal hepatotoxicity reports occurred in patients 65 years of age or older and most were not associated with hypersensitivity. The pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in younger adults and elderly adults do not differ significantly when creatinine clearance is taken into consideration. However, since the drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12. Due to the limited extent of levofloxacin metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment. Chemically, levofloxacin, a chiral fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the pure 29 (-)-(S)-enantiomer of the racemic drug substance ofloxacin. The chemical name is (-)-(S)-9 fluoro-2, 3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1, 2, 3-de]-1, 4 benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid hemihydrate. Levofloxacin is a light yellowish-white to yellow-white crystal or crystalline powder. Levofloxacin has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order: +3 +2 +2 +2 +2 Al >Cu >Zn >Mg >Ca. This is a dilute, non-pyrogenic, nearly isotonic premixed solution that contains levofloxacin in 5% Dextrose (D5W). The amount of water that can permeate from the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Peak plasma concentrations are usually attained one to two hours after oral dosing. Steady-state conditions are reached within 48 hours following a 500 mg or 750 mg once-daily dosage regimen.

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The policy affrms approach to learning, and creative play our respect and support for the rights experiences can empower children to learn of children, strengthens child protection Empowering and develop critical life skills. It encouraged them experiences, while empowering children to invent, problem-solve, collaborate to play, learn and share. As more and more children around the Social media offers fantastic possibilities for world connect digitally, the importance of children to connect with each other across delivering playful experiences within safe the world and share creativity and play online playgrounds has become a vital experiences. However, it also presents which provides support for parents to fresh challenges for responsible brands that talk to their children about digital safety strive to deliver high levels of safety, while while establishing a shared commitment inspiring empowerment and creativity in to ground rules for online social behaviour. We encourage parents to share digital experiences together with their children, Together with our partners and industry take interest in their favourite apps, talk experts, we strive for our digital experiences about digital protection and take the safety to be as safe for children as our physical pledge (Be Safe, Be Cool, Respect Others play materials. But there is no doubt that the futures of a rapidly growing number of children will be increasingly affected by digital technology. Children already account for a substantial percentage of the global networked population, and their share will only increase in the future as internet penetration reaches ever further into regions with the most rapidly growing share of children and young people. Africa, for example, is expected by the middle of the century to become home to 40 per cent of all global under-fves, and 37 per cent of under-18s. There is an urgent urgent, not less important is the need to was developed need for more robust data collection, not develop policies and promote business only about whether children are or are not practices that expand equitable access primarily with connected, but also why and how they to online content. What is opportunities and risks of connectivity and needed are not more guidelines, per se, chart a course to more productive futures. There is real potential for all these digital divides to deepen existing socio-economic divisions. However, as discussed in fbre-optic cables into existing infrastructure Chapter 2, children face a range of barriers construction for transportation, gas and to accessing the internet and, if they do electricity, telecoms and sewerage can also manage to get online, making the best use lower the cost of expanding connectivity. And providing tax and other incentives for the telecom industry to bring down the Chief among these, is the high cost of cost of connectivity for disadvantaged online access, but there are also physical communities and families could make barriers, including geography, poor a signifcant difference. Girls, for community centres, parks and shopping example, are particularly at risk of missing centres can dramatically increase access out on online access because of social for unconnected children. In low-income concerns that the internet is a dangerous neighbourhoods, mobile units, such as and inappropriate place for them. Digital access speaking minority languages or living in is increasingly remote regions. Promote the creation of content a determinant that is relevant to children and in their There are issues, too, around the sort own languages. Both the public and of equal opportunity of devices that children use to access the private sectors should work to create for children.

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Patients with extremes in body size or muscle mass or should coordinate the introduction of recalibrated with altered dietary intakes. An abnormal (elevated) urine albumin several commercial cystatin C assays are not only test once or twice confrms the result. A decrease in urine albumin may is usually detected by measuring creatinine and using be associated with improved renal and cardiovascular the creatinine-based estimated glomerular fltration rate outcomes. Measurement of urine albumin is chronic kidney disease often develop problems with recommended instead of urine total protein. Diabetes is a a random urine specimen should be confrmed with an leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Phosphorus in blood aids in the diagnosis of conditions, such as kidney Urea nitrogen, or urea, is a normal waste product in disease, known to cause abnormally high or low levels. People with kidney disease should learn all they can about the disease and follow treatment carefully. In fact, nearly half of people with an advanced form of kidney disease do not know they have weak or failing kidneys, according to recent research published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, the ofcial journal of the National Kidney Foundation. In fact, 11% of people in the United States age 65 years or older (without diabetes or hypertension) have moderately to severely decreased kidney function. Diabetes is the that occurs suddenly, sometimes because of surgery, leading cause of chronic kidney disease in the U. People with chronic kidney disease develop anemia, kidney disease and can cause potentially serious illness. The kidney releases three hormones: occurs when the body does not make enough insulin. A needs treatment with either dialysis or a kidney transplant potassium level that is too high (hyperkalemia) or too low to maintain life. Sodium is found in table salt and many promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be foods, especially packaged and processed foods. A toxin may also be a waste product that builds up in sign of diabetic kidney disease. The analytical change in plasma creatinine that constitutes a biologic/physiologic change. Chronic kidney disease: A public health problem that needs a public health action plan. United States Renal Data System, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Reliable estimates of the global burden of kidney disease require more population-based studies, but specifc risks occur across the socioeconomic spectrum from poverty to afuence, from malnutrition to obesity, in agrarian to post-industrial settings, and along the life course from newborns to older people. A range of communicable and noncommunicable diseases result in renal complications and many people who have kidney disease lack access to care. The causes, consequences and costs of kidney diseases have implications for public health policy in all countries. The risks of kidney disease are also infuenced by ethnicity, gender, location and lifestyle. Increasing economic and health disparities, migration, demographic transition, unsafe working conditions and environmental threats, natural disasters and pollution may thwart attempts to reduce the morbidity and mortality from kidney disease. These actions can also foster treatment innovations and reduce the burden of such disease in future generations. Given the limited epidemiological data, the common tobacco use, poor diets and inadequate exercise. It is therefore possible that, cable disease epidemics, other important noncommunicable each year, at least as many deaths are attributable to kidney diseases and the so-called causes of the causes of noncom disease as to cancer, diabetes or respiratory diseases, three of municable diseases and failing to place sufficient emphasis the four main categories targeted by the 2013 action plan. Reducing the burden of kidney disease Promotion of universal health umes/96/6/17-206441) including opti causes of kidney disease in low and coverage should reduce the fnancial mization of fetal development, preven middle-income countries. The Global Kidney Health Beyond infection-related kidney com to improving kidney health.

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Synonym: protracted reactive paranoid psychosis paranoid state, simple See delusional disorder. Parkinson disease A neurological disorder, frst described by Parkinson (1755-1824), consisting of a degeneration of the basal ganglia, particularly the substantia nigra. The causes may be idiopathic, infectious, or toxic, or the condition may be part of a wide pathological process afecting the central nervous system. In psychiatric disorders, absolute diagnostic specifcity of clinical phenomena is practically non-existent, and even commonly quoted examples 74 Definitions of terms such as the Argyll Robertson pupil in neurosyphilis-do not meet the requirement. Synonyms: Miinchhausen syndrome; hospital addiction syndrome; chronic factitious disorder with physical symptoms; pathomimicry See also: itentional production of symptoms; hospital hopper syndrome performance ability See nonverbal intelligence. Specifc personality disorders, mixed personality disorders, and enduring personality change are deeply ingrained and persisting behaviour patters, manifested as infexible responses to a broad range of personal and social situations. They represent extreme or signifcant deviations from the way in which the average individual in a given culture perceives, thinks, feels, and, particularly, relates to others. Included in this group are: habit and impulse disorders, gender identity disorders, sexual preference disorders, sexual development and orientation disorders, elaboration of physical symptoms for psychological reasons, and intentional production or feigning of symptoms. The personality change is associated with infexible and maladaptive behaviour that was not present before the pathogenic experience and is not a manifestation of another menta disorder or a residual symptom of any antecedent mental disorder. The change is present for at least 2 years, and the stress is so extreme that it is unnecessary to consider personal vulnerability in order to explain its profound efect on the personality. Typicalstresses include concentration camp experiences, disasters, prolonged captivity with an imminent possibility of being killed, prolonged exposure to life-threatening situations such as being a victim of terrorism, and torture. The change persists for at least 2 years and cannot be explained either by a previous personality disorder or as a residual, or incomplete recovery from, antecedent mental disorder. There is often perfectionism and meticulous accuracy and a consequent need for repeated checking of details. There is a continuous yearing to be liked and accepted, a hypersensitivity to rejection and criticism, with restricted personal attachments, and a tendency to avoid certain activities 76 Definitions of terms by habitual exaggeration of the potential dangers or risks in everyday situations. Lack of vigour may show itself in the intellectual or emotional spheres; there is little capacity for enjoyment. Lack of vigour may show itself in the intellectual or emotional spheres, and there is often a tendency to react to adversity by transferring responsibility to others. There is a low tolerance to frustration and a low threshhold for discharge of aggression, including violence. There is a tendency to blame others, or to ofer plausible rationalizations for the behaviour that brings the individual into confict with society. There is a liability to outbursts of emotions, and an incapacity to control the behavioural explosions. The alteration of personality and behaviour is a residual or concomitant disorder following or accompanying brain disease, damage, or dysfunction. See also: frontal lobe syndrome; limbic epilepsy personality disorder, paranoid (F60. There may be proneness to pathological jealousy or excessive self-importance, and there is often excessive self-reference. Includes the expansive paranoid, fanatic, querulant, and sensitive paranoid personality (disorders) of other classifcations. Individuals may pursue their ideas combatively in defance of social norms or adopt more private, often eccentric, ways of life. See also: personality disorder, paranoid personality, hyperthymic Characteristics are cheerfulness and a high level of activity without the morbid overtones of hypomania.

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This system will make the editorial process more effi cient and will allow easy transfer of content to the internet. The old and the new workflow the existing editorial workflow was designed about 20 years ago using the technical means of that era. It was designed for the production of the printed en cyclopedia with no intention to publish its content online. The proofreading was done entirely on paper with the document files being subsequently modified (error prone). Articles were proofread in batches of about 200, with each batch containing ar ticles from different categories. This approach resulted in a large time gap (even many months) be tween the preparation of the original text and the proofreading. The aim of the new web-based editorial system e-Beliana is to overcome the abovementioned drawbacks and to prepare articles simultaneously for the printed and the internet version of Beliana. The new system should enable inde pendent editing of articles which should significantly shorten processing time. The system should be flexible enough to implement the currently used work flow and to easily allow modifications according to future experience and de mands. The basic requirement of such an editorial system is that in a given moment only one author or editor can modify an article. Horizontally, access rights must be granted to different authors and editors according to the category of the article. One editor is re sponsible for several categories, and there may be several authors for a single category. Vertically, an article flows through a sequence of stages: with author, editor, consultant, etc. Editorial system e-Beliana Based on the abovementioned requirements we analysed various available open-source solutions. Sub sequently, we implemented a first version of the software, imported the pub lished articles and made the system available to users. The remaining functionalities of a full editorial system have been implemented gradually since then in close collaboration with the editors. Several special parts of the software that provided functionality not readily available in Drupal, were later implemented. Cur rently, there are about 20 views which take the access rights provided by the Workbench Moderation and Workbench Access modules into account and about 20 general views which either provide an overview of all Beliana articles to any user or provide users with any necessary special rights For example, ed itors can access a view which enables them to list articles waiting to be edited or a view that allows them to assign articles to authors for editing. Changes can be viewed not only in the editor window, but in all stored revisions of an article. A Beliana website (not accessible to public yet) has been developed independently of the editorial system. Contrary to the complexity of the editorial system which uses tens of additional Drupal modules, during development of the Beliana site, we mainly focused on simplicity, robustness and speed. While the article text is exported to the internet site without changes, it must be modified for the printed version. The major text modifications are the removal of hyperlinks and the abbreviation of common words and article title occur rences in text. Rounded boxes represent editorial stages, sharp boxes represent actions (with user role in italics). Tomova, the e-Beliana Project automated inflection of words [Garabik, Radovan] and enables the abbreviation of single words as well as phrases.