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Four years later in 1750, the population of the mainland colonies passed the million mark too. The British authorities of course saw North America as a whole, and missed the significance of this figure. Greater New England had 400,000, Greater Virginia 390,000, Greater Pennsylvania 230,000, and Greater Carolina nearly 100,000. In attracting yet more people, to keep up the impetus of growth, local authorities did not worry too much about boundaries, an early indication of how the whole territory was beginning to meld together. Equally, in the 1750s there was a large movement from Pennsylvania at the invitation of the Virginia government into the western region of the colony, where large blocks in the Shenandoah Valley were offered at low prices. This created, from an old Indian tract, the famous Great Philadelphia Waggon Trail, which became a major commercial route too. Thus Greater Pennsylvania merged into Greater Virginia, creating yet more movement and dynamism. As settlement expanded inland from the tidewaters, colonies lost their original distinctive characteristics and became simply American. The historian gets the impression, surveying developments in the first half of the century, that so many things were happening in America, at such speed, that the authorities simply lost touch. One member of the Board of Trade stated flatly in 1726, that certain developments in a colony were eo ipso unlawful whether or not there was a specific statute forbidding them: Every act of a dependent provincial government ought to terminate to the advantage of the Mother State unto whom it owes its being and protection in all valuable privileges. Hence it follows that all advantageous projects or commercial gains in any colony which are truly prejudicial to and inconsistent with the interests of the Mother State must be understood be illegal and the practice of them unwarrantable, because they contradict the end to which the colony has a being and are incompatible with the terms on which the people claim both privileges and protection. But with wood so cheap and accessible, America had a huge competitive advantage in shipbuilding before the age of iron and steam. They had vigorously promoted shipbuilding from the 1640s and as early as 1676 were turning out thirty a year for the English market alone; this rose to 300 to 400 a year by 1760. The reason for permitting this obvious anomaly was the British need for cheap timber. A British merchant could sail his ship to Boston, sell his cargo, then with the proceeds build an additional ship, and load both with timber.

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Other lesions, which are malformations, and which may appear as solid masses in the thorax, include cystic adenoid malformation of lung and extralobar lung sequestration. Mediastinal tumors Mediastinal tumors (which include neuroblastoma and hemangioma) may cause mediastinal shift, lung hypoplasia, hydrops and polyhydramnios (due to esophageal compression). Rhabdomyoma (hamartoma) of the heart Rhabdomyoma (which represents excessive growth of cardiac muscle) is the most common primary cardiac tumor in the fetus, neonate, and young child; the birth prevalence is 1 per 10 000. In 50% of cases, the tumor is associated with tuberous sclerosis (autosomal dominant condition with a high degree of penetrance and variable expressivity). The ultrasound features are those of a single or multiple echogenic masses impinging upon the cardiac cavities. The mortality rate in infants operated on within the first year of life is about 30%. Up to 80% of the infants with tuberous sclerosis have seizures and mental retardation, which are the most serious longterm complications of the disease. Intrapericardial teratoma In the majority of cases, the tumor is located in the right side of the heart. Pericardial effusion is always present and results from rupture of cystic areas within the tumor, or from obstruction of cardiac and pericardial lymphatic veins. All hepatic tumors may show the same sonographic features: either a defined lesion (cystic or solid) is present or hepatomegaly exists. Calcifications may appear, and both oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios have been observed. Hemangiomata are histologically benign and they regress spontaneously after infancy. However, occasionally, they are associated with arteriovenous shunting, congestive heart failure and hydrops, resulting in intrauterine or neonatal death. Neuroblastoma this is one of the most common tumors of infancy and is found in about 1 per 20 000 births. Neuroblastoma arises from undifferentiated neural tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia in the abdomen, thorax, pelvis, or head and neck. Usually, the lesion is isolated, but occasional metastasis before birth may occur. Sonographically, the tumor appears as a cystic, solid, or complex mass in the region of the adrenal gland (directly above the level of the kidney and under the diaphragm). Tumors arising from the sympathetic ganglia may appear in the neck, chest, or in the abdomen. The prognosis is excellent if the diagnosis is made in utero or in the first year of life (survival more than 90%), but, for those diagnosed after the first year, survival is less than 20%. The sonographic picture in both tumors is of a solitary mass replacing the normal architecture of the kidney, and, in most cases, there is associated polyhydramnios. Mesoblastic nephromas are benign, and nephrectomy is curative in the majority of cases. Some authors do not consider them to be true tumors, but rather suspect them to represent vascular malformations; (3) Lymphangioma, a cavernous lymphangioma, which involves the lymphatic vessels and is related to cystic hygroma; (4) Sarcoma (mainly rhabdomyosarcoma); this should be distinguished from infantile myofibromatosis. Females are four times more likely to be affected than males, but malignant change is more common in males. The condition is sporadic but some cases are familial, with autosomal dominant inheritance.


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The panic also did for Brother Drew, who had been hornswoggled by his friend Gould and went bankrupt. Drew was a pious Methodist and made huge donations to Madison Theological Seminary in New Jersey, which was renamed Drew Theological Seminary and is now Drew University. He actually lived there, he liked the house so much, and each day his superb yacht Atalanta would take him down the Hudson at dawn to work in his New York City office. From Lyndhurst he conducted financial forays which brought him control of the New York World, the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the New York Elevated Railway. And at Lyndhurst he raised orchids and read the classics in the magnificent library he built up. There was also a strong propensity, among the victims, to hit back, and many ways open to them of doing so. The farmers complained that the railroads overcharged them in order to benefit the big industrial interests, who had more muscle. So from 1869 farmers created the Granger Movement, called after the local granges or lodges of the Patrons of Husbandry in Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin. Beginning with Wisconsin in 1874, they persuaded state legislatures to enact what were called Granger Laws, based on the protoype Potter Law. When, therefore, anyone devotes his property to a use in which the public has an interest, he in effect grants to the public an interest in that use, and must submit to being controlled by the public for the common 361 good. In 1886, it reversed itself in the case of Wabash, St Louis and Pacific Railroad v. Illinois, its decision being that no state could exercise any control of commerce beyond its limits. Cullom of Illinois, then enacted the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act, which met many Granger criteria and set up a commission to carry it out. It became easier for the railroads to serve the public at a reasonable price and do justice to their stockholders after they had been rationalized.

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The first, unable or unwilling to marry, or afraid of childbirth, devoted their lives to a career (as they had once entered nunneries). The second married and bore children, then left their rearing to others and pursued careers. The third chose marriage as a career and raising children and homemaking as their art. Women also increasingly flourished in American business of all types, including the biggest. The evidence of actual companies, treated separately, showed that the Glass Ceiling was a myth. It was also a myth, though a more difficult one to disprove, that women continued to be insignificant in politics. In 1994 more than twice as many women were running for office: 121 for Congress, 79 for statewide office, and 2,284 for state legislatures. A 1996 study showed negligible differences between men and women in success rates for state or national office. By 1995 women constituted 59 percent of the labor force in work, were on the whole better educated and trained then men, were acquiring professional qualifications more quickly, and were less likely to be unemployed. The law was working and being enforced and in this respect the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 had succeeded. It is appropriate to end this history of the American people on a note of success, because the story of America is essentially one of difficulties being overcome by intelligence and skill, by faith and strength of purpose, by courage and persistence. America today, with its 260 million people, its splendid cities, its vast wealth, and its unrivaled power, is a human achievement without parallel. They do not believe that anything in this world is beyond human capacity to soar to and dominate.

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The use of histochemistry shows a strong staining reaction for succinic dehydrogenase. The same tissue prepared for electron microscopy shows many mitochondria in rows between myofibrils and underneath the sarcolemma. Fibers that contract rapidly but are incapable of sustaining continuous heavy work c. In muscular dystrophy, the actin-binding protein dystrophin is absent or defective. Loss of integrity of the desmosomal components of the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle Muscle and Cell Motility 219 130. Which of the following is absent in smooth-muscle cells compared to skeletal muscle cellsfi In the transmission electron micrograph of skeletal muscle shown below, which of the following is true of the zone labeled Cfi This structure bisects the H band and is formed predominantly of creatine kinase d. The mechanochemical enzyme that can be found on the surfaces of cellular organelles where it mediates movement toward the plus end of microtubules is which of the followingfi They are supportive cells for maintenance of muscle and a source of new myofibers after injury or after increased load. There is no dedifferentiation of myocytes into myoblasts (answer b), or fusion of damaged myofibers to form new myotubes (answer c). Hypertrophy, not hyperplasia (answer d), occurs in existing myofibers in response to increased load. Proliferation of fibroblasts may occur in the damaged area but leads to fibrosis, not repair of skeletal muscle. In the development of skeletal muscle, myoblasts of mesodermal origin undergo cell proliferation. Myoblasts, which are mononucleate cells, fuse with each other end to end to form myotubes. This process requires cell recognition between myoblasts, alignment, and subsequent fusion. However, as the degree of overlap of thick and thin filaments is altered, the thin filaments, which form the I band and are anchored to the Z line, are pulled toward the center of the sarcomere. As this occurs, the I band decreases in length and the H band is no longer visible. The filaments themselves do not decrease in length; they slide past one another in the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. If there is a 20% contraction of the muscle (contraction to 80% of its length), then the sarcomere is reduced in length from 2. The size of the A band 221 222 Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology remains unchanged. The I bands are not shown completely on the figure (see High-Yield Facts) because they are found between adjacent A bands. Ca2+ions continue to leak from the extracellular fluid and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (answer a), however, the sarcoplasmic reticulum is no longer able to retrieve the Ca2+ ions (answer b). The high levels of lactic acid cause deterioration of the skeletal muscle and end the state of rigor mortis (answer e). When Ca2+ in the muscle cell cytoplasm is high, the Ca2+ binds to the troponin complex. The binding of Ca2+ to the troponin complex results in a conformational change in the complex, thereby allowing myosin to interact with actin. The troponin complex subsequently reverts to the conformational state in which the troponin complex blocks the interaction of myosin with actin (answer b).

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In creative approaches, the client improvises or creates music or songs spontaneously using voice or musical instruments, or purposefully composes music or songs alone or with the therapist. In re-creative approaches, the client performs previously composed music on an instrument, sings pre-composed songs, conducts music, or learns to play an instrument. Combined approaches may include, for example, music and meditation, music and hypnosis, music and touch/massage, music and movement, and music and other arts experiences. In addition, auditory rhythmic stimulation may provide for the cuing and structuring of movement and walking (Thaut, 2000). In a similar manner, listening to client-preferred, sedative music may affect physiologic parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, and there is some evidence of its influence on stress hormones, immune function, and biochemical phenomena (Dileo and Bradt, 2005). The therapist may improvise music to match a physiologic parameter of the client. Once matched and sustained for a short period, the therapist gradually decreases the pulse of the music to encourage a slowing down of the breath (Dileo and Reuer, 2007). Music may serve as the focal point during a painful procedure, or the therapist and client may chant or sing together to decrease accelerated respiration. Music itself may serve as the relaxation agent, with the client passively listening to music performed live by the therapist or through prerecorded music. Additional relaxation techniques may be combined with the music, including progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic suggestions, breathing techniques, and visual imagery (Dileo and Bradt, 2007; Dileo and Reuer, 2007). Music therapy may be used to enhance social and psychological functioning as well as quality of life in a variety of ways. Listening to live or recorded music may improve mood and decrease depression for a range of clients. Playing an instrument or creating an original song may improve self-esteem and provide for an alternate means of expression. Listening to and discussing lyrics of specially selected songs with a music therapist may facilitate self-awareness and personal insight. Improvising music or performing in a group may strengthen connectedness with others and facilitate the acquisition of social skills. Music therapy may be used to stimulate cognitive functioning in clients suffering from a variety of conditions. For example, hearing and singing songs may evoke memories, promote attention to the task at hand, increase orientation to time and place, and enhance abstract thinking (Magee and Wheeler, 2006). In addition, music therapy may provide comfort to clients and their families by facilitating relationship completion and support for the transition (Dileo and Parker, 2005). Bradt Lastly, music therapy may be used to encourage behavioral changes in clients, for example, providing the motivation to engage in and comply with intervention. This is attributable to its effects on other aforementioned domains, such as reducing pain, decreasing depression, etc. Discussion Music therapists may contribute greatly to the interdisciplinary team because of the range of clinical issues that they may address using this intervention modality. Because of the inherent pleasure and enjoyment associated with music engagement, clients often demonstrate less resistance to music therapy, and client capabilities not obvious in other intervention areas are often observed. Music therapists may serve as consultants to occupational therapists or they may develop ways of combining their areas of expertise to the benefit of the clients they serve. Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer clients [Protocol]. The Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. Music therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses [Systematic Review]. Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

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Held: while the agreement of the parties as to the nature of the contract between them was a relevant factor, it was not conclusive. On the facts of the case, the trial judge had correctly found that, according to the established tests, in reality the relationship of employer/ employee existed. Note: the issue of illegality will be relevant where the parties have colluded to defraud the Inland Revenue (see Chapter 14, p 302). However, as this issue was not raised by either party at the original trial, the Court of Appeal felt that it would be unjust to hold that the contract was affected by illegality, since F had not been given the opportunity of being cross-examined (and thus giving an explanation) on the issue. Similarly, in Lane v Shire Roofing (1995), lane had carried on business as a self-employed roofing contractor for some considerable time. He agreed to do a job for the defendant for a lump sum, with the defendant supplying the materials. It was held that Lane was employed under a contract of service and that the defendant was liable. Employees on loan to a sub-employer the general rule here is that the main employer remains the employer, particularly where the employee is hired out to operate plant or machinery which has been hired by the main employer to the sub-employer. However, in the case of plant-hire companies, for example, it is usual for the contract 598 Chapter 27: Negligence (1) between the main employer and the sub-employer to contain a standard term that the sub-employer shall be liable for meeting any claims arising out of the operation of the plant. Thus, although the main employer remains, in law, the employer, the issue of liability is decided by the contract between the main employer and the sub-employer. Note that where the independent contractor is in breach of contract to the employer, although the employer will be primarily liable to pay damages, he will be able to recoup them if, as will often be the case, the independent contractor is in breach of his contract with the employer or if the independent contractor is liable to the employer for negligence. This is so even though the employee is doing something he has been forbidden to do. Limpus v London General Omnibus Co (1862) Drivers employed by the bus company to drive horse drawn buses were specifically forbidden to race with other drivers. Nevertheless, a driver employed by the company injured the plaintiff while racing with the driver of a rival company. The London General Omnibus Company denied they were vicariously liable since they had instructed their driver not to race. Held: the Company was liable since the driver was doing what he was paid to do, albeit wrongfully. The fact that he was doing something for his own convenience did not take him outside the course of his employment. However, if the employee is undertaking an activity which he is not paid to do, the employer will not be vicariously liable. Beard v London General Omnibus Co (1900) A bus conductor decided, in the absence of the driver, to turn the bus round when it reached its terminus. For example, a bus driver who, while carrying a bus load of boys, took an unauthorised route in order to follow a bus load of girls, was held to be in the course of his employment. However, a driver who, after completing his deliveries, went on a detour to visit his brotherin-law was held to be not in the course of his employment. Where two or more persons cause the same damage, even though they act separately, they are liable jointly. However, the claimant may enforce the full amount of the judgment against any one of them, leaving that party to claim back the appropriate contribution from his fellow defendants. In the latter case, the contribution will be 100% unless the employer is in some way at fault. If he fails to do his, he is in breach of his contract of employment and will be liable to pay damages to his employer. Lister v Romford Ice and Cold Storage Co (1957) L Jnr was employed by R as a lorry driver.

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People who live in North America, Australia, and New Zealand reported the highest average score at 7. Worldwide, the five happiest countries are Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Sweden; the United States is ranked 17th happiest (Figure 14. Although it is difficult to explain this apparent decline in happiness, it may be connected to the challenging economic conditions the United States has endured over the last several years. This question brings us to the next important issue: What factors influence happinessfi Is it money, attractiveness, material possessions, a rewarding occupation, a satisfying relationshipfi One finding is that age is related to happiness: Life satisfaction usually increases the older people get, but there do not appear to be gender differences in happiness (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). Although it is important to point out that much of this work has been correlational, many of the key findings (some of which may surprise you) are summarized below. Family and other social relationships appear to be key factors correlated with happiness. Studies show that married people report being happier than those who are single, divorced, or widowed (Diener et al. Happy individuals also report that their marriages are fulfilling (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). In fact, some have suggested that satisfaction with marriage and family life is the strongest predictor of happiness (Myers, 2000). Happy people tend to have more friends, more high-quality social relationships, and stronger social support networks than less happy people (Lyubomirsky et al. Happy people also have a high frequency of contact with friends (Pinquart & Sorensen, 2000). In general, extensive research suggests that the answer is yes, but with several caveats. On the whole, residents of affluent countries tend to be happier than residents of poor countries; within countries, wealthy individuals are happier than poor individuals, but the association is much weaker (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2002). To the extent that it leads to increases in purchasing power, increases in income are associated with increases in happiness (Diener, Oishi, & Ryan, 2013). However, income within societies appears to correlate with happiness only up to a point. The average increase in reported well-being for people with incomes greater than $75,000 was null. Indeed, researchers in one study found that participants exposed to a subliminal reminder of wealth spent less time savoring a chocolate candy bar and exhibited less enjoyment of this experience than did participants who were not reminded of wealth (Quoidbach, Dunn, Petrides, & Mikolajczak, 2010). Happy people, compared to those who are less happy, are more likely to graduate from college and secure more meaningful and engaging jobs. While education shows a positive (but weak) correlation with happiness, intelligence is not appreciably related to happiness (Diener et al. However, the relationship between religiosity and happiness depends on societal circumstances. Among those who live in nations with difficult living conditions, religiosity is associated with greater well-being; in nations with more favorable living conditions, religious and nonreligious individuals report similar levels of well-being (Diener, Tay, & Myers, 2011). To the extent that people possess characteristics that are highly valued by their culture, they tend to be happier (Diener, 2012).

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Comparison of intracerebral inoculation and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for delivery of adenovirus, herpesvirus, and iron oxide particles to normal rat brain. Graded reversible opening of the rat blood-brain barrier by intracarotid infusion of sodium caprate. Changes in the permeability of the bloodbrain barrier following sodium dodecyl sulphate administration in the rat. Evaluation of effect of charge and lipid coating on ability of 60-nm nanoparticles to cross an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Effect of focused ultrasound applied with an ultrasound contrast agent on the tight junctional integrity of the brain microvascular endothelium. These methods could be applied locally by medical nanorobots with minimal non-local effects. Physiologically relevant increase in temperature causes an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability. Remote control of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier by magnetic heating of nanoparticles: A proof of concept for brain drug delivery. Neurosurgical techniques for disruption of the blood-brain barrier for glioblastoma treatment. Distribution of albumin nanoparticles in animals induced with the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Ultrastructural localization of albumin transport across the cerebral microvasculature during experimental meningitis in the rat. Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier: development, composition and regulation. Some bacteria gain access to the brain by releasing neurotoxins such as pneumolysin982 which have a direct toxic effect on brain endothelial cells and their tight junctions. Nanorobots seeking entry to the neuropil from the bloodstream can search out and exploit these randomly-placed natural junctional gaps. Rapid remodeling of tight junctions during paracellular diapedesis in a human model of the blood-brain barrier. Targeted suppression of claudin-5 decreases cerebral oedema and improves cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury. Pneumolysin is the main inducer of cytotoxicity to brain microvascular endothelial cells caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A quantitative immunocytochemical study of the osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier to endogenous albumin. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in cerebrum and brain stem during acute hypertension. Neuropathology of progressive cognitive decline in chronically hypertensive rhesus monkeys. Nanoparticle-based evaluation of blood-brain barrier leakage during the foreign body response. The association between cerebral amyloid angiopathy and intracerebral haemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis. Single white cell diapedesis through a blood vessel wall typically requires >200 sec (implies <0. A small number of regions in the brain do not have a blood-brain barrier, or have a vascular endothelium that lacks tight junctions. Insights into direct nose to brain delivery: current status and future perspective. Chitosan coated nanostructured lipid carriers for brain delivery of proteins by intranasal administration. Therapeutic efficacy of intranasally delivered mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of Parkinson disease. This method appears sufficient to accommodate the passage of a medical nanorobot measuring several microns in size that is attempting to enter the brain.

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The court must decide whether the stipulated sum is a genuine pre-estimate of the probable loss (in which case it is liquidated damages) or not (in which case it is a penalty); (b) the sum will be a penalty if it is extravagant and greater than the greatest possible loss which could follow from the breach; (c) if the obligation of the promisor under the contract is to pay a sum of money by a certain date, and it is agreed that if he fails to do so he shall pay a larger sum, the larger sum will be a penalty. In Betts v Burch (1859), a contract for the sale of the stock-in-trade and furnishings of a pub provided that, in the case of default in performing the contract, either party would pay the other fi50. It was held that this was a penalty, since if the buyer defaulted even to the extent of failing to pay fi1, he would have to pay fi50; and (d) subject to the preceding rules, if there is only one event upon which a sum is payable, it is liquidated damages. Interest on the late payment of commercial debts the late payment of commercial debts is said to cost small firms millions of pounds in interest payments because they have to borrow money to fill a gap in their cash resources caused by the money which is owed to them. Some companies have attempted to rectify the situation by imposing in their conditions of sale a condition that interest should be paid on debts which are not settled within the given credit period (usually 28/30 days). However, if the customer ignores this and simply pays the net amount of the invoice, few creditors will take any further action, particularly where the creditor is a small company dealing with a larger one. In the first place, it is hardly worth the time pursuing the customer for a relatively small amount of interest (it is the cumulative effect spread over a period of time and a number of debtors which is at the root of the problem). Secondly, there is the possibility that customer relations will not survive such conduct and that the customer will be lost. Thus, unless the default of the customer amounts to a worthwhile amount in interest, the matter is rarely pursued. In particular, there are complex provisions which allow the parties to displace the Act and to make their own contractual agreement on interest. There are also provisions which give a wide discretion to the courts in implementing the right to interest. Despite these significant shortcomings, it may be that, although the Act in itself will have little effect, it will act as a signal to late payers that the government intends to alleviate the problem and that this may only be the first step. The Act may be taken as a signal that if the problem persists, the government may take stronger measures: perhaps making late payment subject to intervention by the Office of Fair Trading, perhaps even making it a criminal offence, and perhaps controlling at the outset the terms of contracts by which large companies insist upon extended credit from smaller ones. Late Payment of Commercial Debts (Interest) Act 1998 Section 1 provides that it is an implied term in a contract to which this Act applies that any qualifying debt created by the contract carries simple interest. The Act applies to contracts for the supply of goods and services, apart from excepted contracts. Excepted contracts are consumer credit contracts, certain contracts such as mortgages intended to operate by way of security, and any contract designated by the Secretary of State as excepted. This provision may cause a difficulty, since in Stevenson v Rogers, for the purpose of s 14 of the Sale of Goods Act, it was held that any sale in the course of a business was sufficient to bring the sale within the scope of s 14. However, in Davies v Sumner it was held that for the purpose of the Trade Descriptions Act 1968, the sale needed to be integral to the purpose of the business. It is suggested that it would be unrealistic to apply the Davies v Sumner test in such a situation and that any sale by the business should qualify. Thus, for example, Lisa enters into a contract with Mandy for the supply of a new computer. However, if despite lack of advance payment, Mandy supplies the computer, the relevant day will be the day of the supply and interest will begin to accrue from the following day; (c) if the contract is one of hire, the last day of the hire period; or (d) if none of the above applies, it will be the last day of the period of 30 days beginning with either (i) the day on which the obligation of the supplier was performed, or (ii) the day on which the purchaser has notice of the amount of the debt. The Act allows the parties to contract out of it but subject only to strict safeguards. Section 8 provides that any contract terms which exclude the right to statutory interest are void unless the contract contains a substantial remedy for late payment. Section 5 gives the court a wide discretion to disallow a claim, reduce the scope of a claim or to reduce the rate of interest. It allows the court to remit the statutory interest, either in whole or in part, where by reason of any conduct of the supplier the interests of justice require it.


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