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  • Professor of Pharmacy Practice, Ferris State University College of Pharmacy
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It may be accessed inequitably, or universal funding may be perceived as a subtle pressure to test. A social environment in which prenatal testing is the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series; Vol. It may decrease the visibility of people with disabilities, and the resources and support available to them. Careful attention to the facilitation of counselling and informed decision-making may help mitigate these potential challenges. Noninvasive prenatal testing for trisomies 21, 18, and 13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, and microdeletions: a health technology assessment. Screening of fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by noninvasive prenatal testing [Internet]. What women want: lead considerations for current and future applications of noninvasive prenatal testing in prenatal care. Preferences for prenatal tests for Down syndrome: an international comparison of the views of pregnant women and health professionals. Attitudes of mothers of children with Down syndrome towards noninvasive prenatal testing. Best ethical practices for clinicians and laboratories in the provision of noninvasive prenatal testing. Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Appraising qualitative research for evidence syntheses: a compendium of quality appraisal tools. Coming out as ill: understanding self-disclosure in chronic illness from a meta-synthesis of qualitative research. Reconciling ethical and economic conceptions of value in health policy using the capabilities approach: a qualitative investigation of non-invasive prenatal testing. Hoping someday never comes: deferring ethical thinking about noninvasive prenatal testing. Cross cultural perspectives on decision-making regarding non-invasive prenatal testing: a comparative study of Lebanon and Quebec. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening. Attitudes toward and uptake of prenatal genetic screening and testing in twin pregnancies. Implementing non invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy in a national healthcare system: global challenges and national solutions. Views of the obstetric profession on non invasive prenatal testing in Aotearoa New Zealand: a national survey. Determination of foetal sex in pregnancies at risk of haemophilia: a qualitative study exploring the clinical practices and attitudes of health professionals in the United Kingdom. The integration of noninvasive prenatal screening into the existing prenatal paradigm: a survey of current genetic counseling practice. In everything it does, Health Quality Ontario brings together those with first-hand experience to hear their experiences and views of how to make them better. We partner with patients, residents, families and caregivers to be full participants in designing our programs and services, to ensure they are aligned to their needs and priorities. We work collaboratively with organizations across the province to encourage the spread of innovative and proven programs to support high quality care, while also saving money and eliminating redundancy.

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In case of limited (forme fruste) disease or a single disease manifestation, the detection of serum autoantibodies can play an Autoimmune Diseases important role in raising the suspicion of evolving disease and forecasting prog nosis. Autoantibodies observed in systemic autoimmune diseases are described in alphabetical order in Part 1 of this reference guide. In Part 2, systemic autoim mune disorders as well as symptoms that indicate the possible presence of an autoimmune disease are listed. Systemic manifestations of organ-specific autoim mune diseases will not be covered in this volume. Furthermore, because many disease-associated autoantibodies are detectable in preclinical stages, they have assumed a potential role in the very early diagnosis or risk assessment of disease development. The growing knowledge about the pathogenic and diagnostic value of autoantibodies in systemic diseases, and the discovery of novel autoantibodies and changes in classification criteria necessitated the publishing of a revised and supplemented 2nd edition. Cer tainly, autoantibody testing is not required to make a diagnosis in a woman who presents with a photosensitive skin rash, pericarditis, glomerulonephritis, anemia and psychosis. Unfortunately, in many cases the time interval from the onset of symptoms to a confirmed diagnosis and meet ing established criteria for the classification of disease,can be measured in decades. There many other examples of the clinical utility of autoantibody testing in isolated clinical scenarios such as polyarthritis, myosi tis, neuropathies, cytopenias, and vasculopathies that are characteristic, but not specific for, any single systemic rheumatic disease. While the diagnosis of forme fruste diseaseisanimportantuseofautoantibody testing,another valuable use is that they provide an understanding of the pathogen esis. However, the implications of longer term health care costs of missing an early diagnosis in a patient with forme fruste disease must also be carefully considered. Clinical studies to address these issues will prove worthwhile and save patients from needless,expensive and invasive tests,and missed diagnosis that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. In as far as they were known to the authors, synonyms or alternative names for the antibodies were also listed. Obsolete termi nology is indicated as such, and the names preferred by the authors are used in the alphabetical index. The autoantibody description section begins, in some cases, with a brief in troduction or historical account. Black Letters on White Background these autoantibodies are currently not clinically relevant, are no longer clini cally relevant, or are clinically relevant only in isolated cases. Autoantigens Various heat shock proteins (heat-stress-induced proteins) like Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90. Antihistone antibodies tend to disappear within one year of discontinuing the causative drug. Difierential recognition of antinuclear antibodies in sera presenting a typical chromatin fiuorescence pattern. Part 2 System ic Autoim une Diseases Syndrom es, Diagnostic Criteria, Sym ptom s 192 Sfififififififi Afififififififififi Dfififififififi fi Sfifififififififi,Dfififififififififi,Sfififififififi Abortion, spontaneous Recurrent spontaneous abortions that generally occur after the 10th week of ges tation (caused by thrombotic events in the placenta) are a characteristic sign of antiphospholipid syndrome. Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia occurs in about 9 % of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Its clinical picture is ex tremely variable, and the complications arising from the disease may be minimal to life-threatening. In studies of populations of patients who have more than one type of pregnancy morbidity, investigators are strongly encouraged to stratify groups of subjects according to a, b, or c above. Ro52 antibodies can be found but did not have any diagnostic or prognostic relevance. Recent studies have shown that beta blockers the clinical findings and suspected underlying condition.

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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome and excited delirium can present in with similar signs and symptoms 4. If polypharmacy issuspected, hypertensionand tachycardia areexpectedhemodynamic findings secondary to increased dopamine release. Be prepared for the potential of cardiovascular collapse as well as respiratory arrest 6. Revision Date September 8, 2017 255 Cyanide Exposure Aliases Cyanide, hydrogen cyanide, blood agent Patient Care Goals 1. Depending on its form, cyanide can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through the skin. Non-specific and early signs of cyanide exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or absorption) include the following signs and symptoms: anxiety, vertigo, weakness, headache, tachypnea, nausea, dyspnea, vomiting, and tachycardia 2. The rapidity of onset is related to the severity of exposure (inhalation or ingestion) and may be dramatic with immediate effects that include early hypertension with subsequent hypotension, sudden cardiovascular collapse or seizure/coma, and rapid death Exclusion Criteria No recommendations Patient Management Assessment 1. Assess vital signs including temperature and pulse oximetry (which may not correlate with tissue oxygenation in cyanide/smoke exposure) 4. Monitor patient for signs of hypoxia (pulse oximetry fi 94%) and respiratory decompensation regardless of pulse oximetry reading 8. Identify the specific agent of exposure, time of ingestion/ inhalation, and quantity/timing of exposure 9. Obtain patient history including cardiovascular history and prescribed medication 10. Perform physical exam Treatment and Interventions There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Therefore, treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. For the patient with an appropriate history and manifesting one or more significant cyanide exposure signs or symptoms, treat with: 1. Collect a pre-treatment blood sample in the appropriate tube for lactate and cyanide levels 3. Pediatric: Administer hydroxocobalamin 70 mg/kg (reconstitute concentration is 25 mg/mL) 4. If the patient ingests cyanide, it will react with the acids in the stomach generating hydrogen cyanide gas. Hydroxocobalamin is only agent safe for treatment of cyanide poisoning in pregnant patient Notes/Educational Pearls 257 Key Considerations 1. Pulse oximetry accurately reflects serum levels of oxygen but does not accurately reflect tissue oxygen levels therefore should not be relied upon in possible cyanide and/or carbon monoxide toxicity 2. After hydroxocobalamin has been administered, pulse oximetry levels are no longer accurate 3. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulfate versus sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity in a swine (Sus scrofa) model. Smoke inhalation injury in a pregnant patient: a literature review of the evidence and current best practices in the setting of a classic case. Revision Date September 8, 2017 259 Beta Blocker Poisoning/Overdose Aliases Anti-hypertensive Patient Care Goals 1.

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For example, perforating can mean an injury with an entrance wound only8 or one Blunt injury with both an entrance and an exit wound. Blunt objects need higher kinetic penetrates either of these tissues, it does not become intraocular but energy to enter the eye (rupture) and are thus capable of inflicting remains intrascleral/corneal (see reference 72). However, because this is a blunt object that requires a huge impact force if it enters, not just contuses, the eye, there is an element of rupture involved. Ocular perforation follow Predictors of blinding or serious eye injury in blunt ing retrobulbar anesthesia for retinal detachment trauma. Vitrectomy for and the role of vitrectomy in severe blunt ocular double penetrating ocular injuries. Pars plana vitrectomy for acute reti double-perforating injury of the posterior segment in nal detachment in penetrating ocular injuries. Mechanicala trauma to the eye is subdi test (see Chapter 9), is a gross indicator of aberrant vided into open and closed globe injuries because optic nerve and/or retinal function. The system reasons, observing the consensual response in the categorizes trauma by four parameters: fellow eye. If a of injury depends on whether the injury is open or patient is unconscious or unreliable (see Chap closed globe. Grade, as defined by visual acuity measurement at Pthe zone of injury is frequently possible the initial examination. In cases involving perforating injury, be the most reliable predictor of final visual outcome in open globe the most posterior defect, usually the exit site, is used injuries (see Chapter 3). Zone I injuries include superficial P(type, grade, presence/absence of a rela injuries of the bulbar conjunctiva, sclera, or cornea. When clinical circumstances preclude assess and usually do not require specialized equipment ment of posterior structures, standardized B-scan c or testing. Primary care personnel are typically ultrasonography may be necessary to delineate the extent of the damage. Traumatic hyphema: a retrospective study of tive study of penetrating ocular traumata the Wilmer 314 cases. Visual outcome and Visual outcome and prognostic factors after magnetic ocular survival in patients with retinal detachments extraction of posterior segment foreign bodies in 40 secondary to open or closed-globe injuries. Are aminoglycosides neces implantation in the setting of penetrating ocular saryfi Douglas Witherspoon, Robert Morris, and Richard Maisiak Epidemiology involves systematic obser face, their significance to individuals and society is vation (data collection) leading to the disproportionally higher: most of the information development and execution of a strategy reaches humans through vision. Consequently, the (planning and implementing an interven socioeconomic impact of ocular trauma can hardly be tion). Trauma, the other In industrialized nations, trauma has become the major cause of early death, has long been most common reason for extended hospitalization of considered a result of random, unrelated, and ophthalmologic patients. In the United States alone5 unpreventable factors rather than a disease there are almost 2.

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Plasma exchange for myasthenia parative study of daily versus alternately daily schedule. Lazaridis K, Evaggelakou P, Bentenidi E, Sideri A, Grapsa E, nia gravis patients through an immunomodulatory action. Other contributing factors may include hypercalcemia, hyperuricemia, dehydra tion, intravenous contrast media, and toxic effects of light chains on distal tubular epithelium. Anti-myeloma chemotherapy consisting of an alkylating agent and a corticosteroid are used to diminish M-protein production. More recently, immune modulation (thalidomide, lenalidomide) and proteasome inhibition (bortezomib) have emerged as highly effective therapy. However, this study has been criticized in that most of the enrolled patients were not proven to have cast nephropathy by renal biopsy, and confidence intervals were wide, suggesting the study was underpowered, and the composite outcome undervalued an end result of dialy sis independence for many patients. Survival at six months, as opposed to end points more specific to recovery of renal func tion, has also been questioned as part of the composite outcome. In all cases ultimate survival depends on a satisfactory response to chemotherapy. There are no studies that compare one apheresis treatment schedule with another, but the randomized trials referenced above rely on short periods of daily treatment. Technical notes Initial management, especially in the case of nonoliguric patients, should focus on fluid resuscitation (2. Early application of high cut-off haemodialysis for de-novo myeloma nephropathy is associated 1. Haemodialysis using high cut-off guidelines: a consensus report from the Scientific Advisors of dialysers for treating acute renal failure in multiple myeloma. Therapeutic apheresis in hematological and onco Plasma exchange therapy in rapidly progressive renal failure logical diseases. It should be noted that dialysis has not been associated with improvement once symptoms are established. Initiation of pro phylactic hemodialysis shortly after exposure to Gd may decrease the likelihood of the harmful effect. Whether the changes become irreversible or if earlier treatment is more effective than later has not been determined. Improvement of early symptoms in one patient reported to have occurred within 3 days of treatment initiation. Maloo M, Abt P, Kashyap R, Younan D, Zand M, Orloff M, pheresis for articles published in the English language. Extracorporeal photopheresis: clini muscle uptake of Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate fol cal use so far. Symptoms of optic neuritis include ocular pain, visual field deficits, and positive visual phenomena. Monophasic course is associated with younger age at disease onset and equal male:female predomi nance. Merle H, Olindo S, Jeannin S, Valentino R, Mehdaoui H, Cabot neuromyelitis optica, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and F, Donnio A, Hage R, Richer R, Smadja D, Cabre P. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of Ameri disorders.

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Fatalities: treated 10 % and untreat ed 85 %; residual organic brain damage in up to 30 %: epileptic fits, dementia, psy chic defects. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Fulminant course (septic endotoxic shock), massive parenchymal bleeding, dissemi G 42 nated intravascular clotting with haemorrhagic necroses in the skin, mucosa, inner organs (bilateral adrenocortical insufficiency, acute interstitial myocarditis, peri carditis with pericardial tamponade), consumption coagulopathy, circulatory col lapse within a few hours; age-dependent fatalities, on average 10 % (to 40 %), can heal leaving residual defects. Mixed forms Local or systemic infections of the sinuses, conjunctiva, middle ear, upper and lower airways, urogenital tract (urethra, cervix); in 7 % of cases post-infectious allergic complications as a result of circulating antigen-antibody complexes: arthritis, epi scleritis, cutaneous vasculitis, pericarditis. Detection of antibodies To establish susceptibility to infection/vaccination status: anamnesis of illnesses and vaccinations not sufficient, inspection of vaccination documents required; detection of specific anti-meningococcus antibodies possible, but not for serogroup B; it is not necessary to check vaccination success (seroconversion up to 97 %). Note: vaccination of laboratory personnel indicated; vaccination of previously unvaccinated adults who care for children under 6 years old is recom mended; school children and students before they spend long periods in countries where the vaccination is generally recommended. After exposure Initial therapy of infected persons with penicillin G (drug of choice), alternatively third generation cephalosporins. G 42 Occupational Specialized medical centres (examination, treatment, nursing), pathology, research institutes, reference centres, consulting laboratories; Variola major virus, variola minor virus (alastrim virus): specialized medical centres (examination, treatment, nursing), pathology, research institutes, laboratories, (emer gency and rescue services, nursing staff, high security laboratories). Animal pox viruses: veterinary medicine (veterinary surgeons, obduction assistants), zoological gardens (zoo-keepers), circuses, farming (breeders, shepherds, milkers, shearers), specialized laboratories, reference centres, consulting laboratories. Vaccinia virus: transmission from man to animals possible (droplet and contact in fection). Animal pox viruses: (mostly) animal to man; man to man or man to animal (contact infection) cannot be excluded. Vaccinia Weaker vaccination/vaccinia virus with properties of variola and cowpox virus; postvaccinal (p. Animal pox infections Cowpox: primary host small rodents (not cattle); recent infections of persons via cats; lesions localized on the thumb, forefinger, forearm and face; isolated hazelnut-sized livid reddish, sometimes haemorrhagic nodules, occasionally associated with feeling very ill, encephalitis rare, no generalized rash. Catpox: primary host cats, either clinically inapparent infection or local skin ulcera tion or generalized (systemic) illness (immunosuppressed persons): formation of pus tules and subsequent ulcers in the head area. G 42 Activities with a risk of infection 489 5 Special medical examination Direct diagnosis (usual); otherwise in special laboratories: Detection of infectious agent For example, electron microscopic particle detection (rapid diagnosis, virus culture obligatory). After exposure Variola major Therapy: symptomatic, specific therapy unknown; infected persons to be isolated in competent centres; segregation/quarantine (infected and exposed persons, nursing personnel) for 19 days; Active immunization (for employees in high security laboratories and in cases of smallpox alarm/ bioterrorism): live vaccine to be given as early as possible and cer tainly within 4 days of exposure; illness cannot always be prevented (less severe course, reduced virus excretion); passive immunization: consider injection of anti vaccinia immunoglobulin. Occupational the health service (paediatrics), consulting laboratories, facilities for medical exami nation, treatment and nursing of children and for care of preschool children, obstet rics, treatment of infectious diseases. G 42 Activities with a risk of infection 491 Congenital infections/hydrops fetalis Risk of prenatal toxicity in one third of infections of non-immune pregnant women: hy drops fetalis intrauterine (possibly postpartal) early death, spontaneous abortion, af ter congenital infections sometimes virus persistence. Other manifestations Peripheral, persistent (weeks to months) polyarthropathy (also after inapparent infec tion); juvenile vascular purpura, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura (can be life-threaten ing); erythroblastopenia (pure red cell aplasia) in persons with acquired/inherited immunodeficiency; rarely diarrhoea, encephalopathy, glomerulonephritis, fulminant G 42 hepatitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, pseudoappendicitis, uveitis. Detection of antibodies To establish the susceptibility to infection or for diagnosis of unclear rash. Occupational Research institutes, reference centres, laboratories (regular work and contact with in fected animals/samples, samples and animals suspected of being infected, other contaminated objects or materials containing the infectious agent given a practi cable route of transmission), facilities for medical examination, treatment and nursing of children and for care of pre-school children, hostels. Hygienic and disinfection measures when handling critical tissues or invasive medi cal products potentially contaminated with prions, especially surgical instruments; G 42 Activities with a risk of infection 497 avoidance of pricks and cuts and splashing of sample materials (work in a closed hood). G 42 No risk of infection during social or intimate contact, daily care, isolation not neces sary, normal washing up procedures for dishes and utensils. Disposition prophylaxis (vaccination): new immunological approaches will perhaps make it possible to immunize against prion diseases.

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Pyrazinamide frequently is used for the first 2 months in a three-drug or four-drug regimen. Although safety data in pregnancy have not been published, many experts have used the drug in pregnant women with no apparent problems for the woman or the fetus. Neonatal infection may occur at the time of delivery as a result of aspiration of 426 Guidelines for Perinatal Care tubercle bacilli in women with tuberculosis endometritis. On the rare occasions in which congenital tuberculosis is suspected, diagnostic evaluations and treat ment of the infant and the mother should be initiated promptly. Management of a newborn whose mother (or other household contact) is suspected of having tuberculosis is based on individual considerations. If the mother is asymptomatic, the infant needs no special evaluation or therapy and no separation of the mother and the infant is required. In the latter case, the mother may develop contagious, pulmonary tuberculosis, if untreated, and should receive appropriate therapy if not treated previously. All contacts should have a tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma release assay, chest X-ray, and physical exami nation. Women with tuberculosis disease who have been treated appropriately for 2 or more weeks and who are not considered contagious can breastfeed. Because the response to the vaccine in infants may be delayed, the infant should be separated from the ill family member for at least several weeks after vaccination. Congenital syphilis most often is acquired through hematogenous transplacental infection of the fetus, although direct contact of the infant with infectious lesions during or after delivery also can result in infection. Transplacental infection can occur throughout pregnancy and at any stage of maternal infection. Antepartum Management All pregnant women should be serologically screened for syphilis as early as possible in pregnancy. Microscopic dark-field and histologic examinations for spirochetes are most reliable when lesions are present. Algorithm for evaluation and treatment of infants born to mothers with reactive serologic test results for syphilis. Alternatively, these infants may be examined carefully, preferably monthly, until their nontrepone mal serologic test results are negative. Patients in the later stages of Lyme disease usually will be seropositive, but false-positive and false negative test results are common. Suspicion of early maternal infection is based on a history of exposure to tick bites, the presence of the distinctive erythema migrans rash, and nonspecif ic, flu-like symptoms. Because congenital infection occurs with other spirochetal infec tions, there has been concern that an infected pregnant woman could transmit B burgdorferi to her fetus. No causal relationship between maternal Lyme disease and congenital abnormalities caused by B burgdorferi has been documented. For patients who are unable to tolerate erythromycin, cefuroxime axetil is an alternative for patients with immediate and anaphylactic hypersensitivity to penicillin who have undergone penicillin desensitization. If travel to a malaria-endemic area is necessary, appropriate consultation should be sought for chemoprophylaxis recommendations based on the malaria species and drug-resistance patterns prevalent in that area. Treatment of infection is based on the infecting species, possible drug resistance, and severity of disease.

References:

  • https://ohsaaweb.blob.core.windows.net/files/Sports-Medicine/PPE_2020-21.pdf
  • https://www.gilead.com/-/media/files/pdfs/medicines/liver-disease/viread/viread_pi.pdf
  • https://www.corelaboratory.abbott/sal/learningGuide/ADD-00061345_ClinChem_Learning_Guide.pdf
  • https://www.imedpub.com/articles/medication-adherence-in-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-on-pharmacist-role.pdf
  • http://drkney.com/pdfs/vasculitis_0311.pdf