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If so, they should be asked to say whether diplopia occurs in any particular direction of gaze. It is important to exclude palsies of the third (eye turned out) or sixth (failure of abduction) cranial nerves, as these may be secondary to life threatening conditions. Complex abnormalities of eye movements should Eye movements lead you to suspect myasthenia gravis or dysthyroid eye disease. The presence of nystagmus should be noted, as it may indicate Test movements in all directions significant neurological disease. Convergence Test eye movements in all directions and when converging the cornea should be stained with fluorescein eye drops. Normal position of corneal light reflexes If this is not done, many lesions, including large corneal ulcers, may be missed Eyelids, conjunctiva, sclera, and cornea Examination of the eyelids, conjunctiva, sclera, and cornea should be performed in good light and with magnification. You will need: fi a bright torch (with a blue filter for use with fluorescein) or an ophthalmoscope with a blue filter fi a magnifying aid. The lower lid should be gently pulled down to show the conjunctival lining and any secretions in the lower fornix. Corneal abrasion stained with the anterior chamber should be examined, looking fluorescein and illuminated with specifically at the depth (a shallow anterior chamber is seen in blue light angle-closure glaucoma and perforating eye injuries) and for the presence of pus (hypopyon) or blood (hyphaema). All these signs indicate serious disease that needs immediate ophthalmic referral. Ectropion Basal cell carcinoma Blepharitis 4 History and examination this should not be done, however, if there is any question of ocular perforation, as the ocular contents may prolapse. The drainage angle of the eye can be checked with a special Scleritis: localised redness lens (gonioscope). Conjunctivitis: generalised Blood in anterior chamber redness (hyphaema) Intraocular pressure Assessment of intraocular pressure by palpation is useful only when the intraocular pressure is considerably raised, as in acute closed angle glaucoma. Special contact lens being used to view the drainage angle of the eye (gonioscope) Ophthalmoscopy Good ophthalmoscopy is essential to avoid missing many serious ocular and general diseases. Specific contact and non-contact lenses are used during the examination, and the ophthalmologist should use a slit-lamp microscope or head-mounted ophthalmoscope. There is an associated risk of precipitating acute angle closure glaucoma, but this is very small. The best dilating drop is tropicamide 1%, which is short acting and has little effect on accommodation. However, the effects may still last several hours, so the patient should be warned about this and told not to drive until any blurring of vision has subsided. The patient should be asked to fix their gaze on an object in Measuring intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry the distance, as this reduces pupillary constriction and accommodation, and helps keep the eye still. This red reflex is the reflection from the fundus and is best assessed from a distance of about 50cm. If the red reflex is either absent or diminished, this indicates an opacity between the cornea and retina. The optic disc should then be located and brought into Patients should always be warned to seek help immediately focus with the lenses in the ophthalmoscope.

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Chronic bronchitis is a long-term productive cough accom panied by episodes of shortness of breath. It is caused by chronic irritation of the airw ays by inhaled substances, m ost com m only tobacco sm oke. Sufferers often have a history of acute chest infections that becom e m ore frequent and severe until there is a perm anent cough. Heart failure: early sym ptom s of this condition of older people include a productive cough w ith frothy, pink-tinged sputum and breathlessness. This condition is caused by refiux into the oesophagus of acidic stom ach contents. The classic sym ptom s are heartburn and a sensation of regurgitation of acidic fiuid up to the back of the throat. It m ay also be accom panied by a non-productive cough, especially w hen lying dow n. Carcinom a of the lung: m ost patients w ith this condition develop a cough w hich is productive and the sputum m ay be streaked w ith blood. Adverse drug reactions: drugs that can produce cough as a side-effect include angiotensin-converting enzym e inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-infiam m atory drugs and beta-blockers. The placebo effect and reassurance derived from using them for self-lim iting acute cough probably contribute significantly to their perceived effectiveness. Both dextro and laevo-isom ers of opioid com pounds possess antitussive activity, but only the laevo-isom ers have liability for dependence. Evidence of the efficacy of codeine, pholcodine and dextrom ethorphan is confiicting, and m ost trials rate them as little or no better than placebo. Codeine and pholcodine have been traditionally rated as m ore potent than dextrom ethorphan, but have a greater side-effect profile. Pholcodine has a generally better side effect profile than codeine, and dextrom ethorphan is claim ed to be virtually free from side-effects. Antihistam ines Com pounds available are: brom pheniram ine, diphenhydram ine, prom ethazine and triprolidine. All are sedative-type antihistam ines, exerting a central and peripheral inhibitory action on neuronal pathw ays involved in the cough refiex. Side-effects include sedation, and anticholinergic effects such as dry m outh, urinary retention, constipation and blurring of vision. Both types of side-effect m ay be useful in cough preparations, aiding sleep if taken near to bedtim e and drying up bronchial and nasal secretions. Because of side-effects, cough preparations containing antihistam ines should not be recom m ended to patients w ith glaucom a or prostate problem s and should be used w ith caution in older patients. Interactions: the sedative effects of antidepressants, anxiolytics and hypnotics are likely to be enhanced by antihistam ines, as are the antim uscarinic actions and side-effects of drugs such as trihexyphenidyl, orphenadrine, tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. In productive cough, m ucus produced in the bronchial passages as a result of infection is m oved upw ards tow ards the pharynx by ciliary action and is then expelled by coughing. As the cough is clearing m ucus and helping to keep the airw ays open, it should not be suppressed. In large doses they are em etic, acting through vagal stim ulation of the gastric m ucosa to produce a Cough 143 refiex response from the vom iting centre in the brain. The sam e m echanism stim ulates the bronchial glands and cilia and it is postulated that this stim ulation still occurs at subem etic doses. Expectorants have long been used in the treatm ent of cough, but there is little objective evidence of their effectiveness. Guaifenesin is the expectorant m ost frequently used in proprietary preparations, and is the only one recognised to have any activity. M any expectorant preparations contain w hat appear to be subtherapeutic levels of constituents. There is little risk of adverse effects from expectorants and they do not interact w ith other drugs.

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There w ill be severe pain in the region of the hip; s fractures of the shaft of the thigh bone exhibit the usual signs and sym ptom s of a fracture. If you think that the thigh is broken: s first, pad betw een the thighs, knees, calves and ankles, using folded blankets or any other suitable soft m aterial; s bring the good leg to the broken leg. If attem pting to do this causes pain, apply traction to the injured leg gently and slow ly, and then try again; s tie encircling bandages: around both feet; halfw ay betw een the knees and the ankles; just above the knees; and at the upper thighs. When an open fracture occurs, the w ound should be treated before splinting is undertaken and antibiotic treatm ent should be given. Put additional padding behind the hollow at the heel so as to lift it off the splint, and also behind the knee; s secure the splint in place w ith bandages round the thigh, round the low er leg just below the knee and w ith a figure-of-eight bandage at the ankle, and elevate the leg on a suitable support (Figure 1. When m edical attention w ill not be available for som e tim e and it is obvious that there is a w ide gap betw een the fragm ents of the knee cap, carry out the procedure described above, but put a figure-of-eight bandage round the knee, beginning above the knee cap and finishing over padding applied just below it (Figure 1. Knee to foot Low er lim b these should be treated in the sam e w ay as fractures of the thigh. Ankle An ankle fracture which is stable and without any deform ity can be given adequate but tem porary first aid by placing the injured ankle on a num ber of pillow s to keep it at rest (Figure 1. In m ore serious fractures of the ankle it is usual to find a good deal of deform ity and sw elling, and splinting Figure 1. Pad these w ell to allow for the deform ity and sw elling, and apply them to both sides of the leg; s fix them in place w ith a figure-of-eight bandage to the foot and place other bandages just below the knee and above the ankle; s check that the circulation is intact. Heel bone these fractures usually occur w hen the casualty has fallen from a height and lands on his heels. As force has been transm itted upwards, there m ay be m ore serious fractures elsewhere. Fractures of the toes m ay occur w hen they are stubbed against som e hard object. Both legs As there is no good leg to act as a splint for the other, external splinting w ill have to be used. These should reach from the thigh to the ankles on the outside of both the legs for below the knee fractures, and from the arm pit to the ankles for above the knee fractures; s pad betw een the thighs, knees, calves and ankles; s bring both feet together as gently as you can, using traction if necessary. In this case, the jaw w ith the tongue attached on the inside of it, can m ove backw ards and m ay obstruct the air passage. Any careless m ovem ent of a casualty w ith a fractured spine could dam age or sever the spinal cord, resulting in perm anent paralysis and loss of feeling in the legs, and double incontinence for life. He can, how ever, be safely rolled over onto one side or the other because, if this is done very gently and carefully, there is very little m ovem ent of the spine. Tingling usually m eans that there is som e pressure on the spinal cord; s ask him to m ove his toes. If he is unable to do this, then paralysis is present and indicates severe dam age to the spinal cord; s run your fingers lightly over the skin of the low er legs and feet. So do not be in a hurry to m ove him; s prepare a stiff supporting stretcher ready for the patient. A canvas stretcher w ill not do unless it has stiff w ooden boards laid transversely over the canvas to provide a rigid support for the back. Tw o pads m ust be provided to support and fill the hollow s of the spine in the sm all of the back and behind the neck. See also Notes at end of this Section; s to lift the casualty, have at least tw o people grasping each side of the blanket and one person at the head and one at the feet to provide in line support. Then m ove the stretcher tow ards the head end until it is exactly underneath the casualty. Adjust the position of the pads to fit exactly under the curves in the sm all of the back and neck; s low er the casualty very, very slow ly on to the stretcher. Every care and attention, and encouragem ent m ust be given to help him to rem ain still, whether or not any paralysis is present. Bags filled with sand should be placed as necessary to prevent the body or lim bs rolling. A urine bottle should be constantly available, and a catheter should be used to relieve him if necessary.

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Most adolescents accomplish the transition successfully as a natural process of growth and maturation in all spheres of life. The psychological and psy chosocial impact of chronic illness or disability on the youth and family has been well documented. A brief overview of issues as they relate to transition of med ical care of adolescents and young adults with chronic disease or disability from child-oriented to adult-oriented system of health care is presented here. According to the Society for Adolescent Medicine, transition is the purpose ful planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions from child-centered to adult-centered care [4]. The Consensus Statement on Health Care Transitions for Young Adults with Special Health Care Needs (supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, and American Society of Internal Medicine) recommends to have a transition plan in place by the time the adolescent is 14 years old and to update this annually [6]. Some young adults may be ready to begin transition when they are 13 years old, whereas others may not be ready until they are 16 or 17 years old; thus, the transition plan must be individualized. The young adult and the family must be involved in the decision process, and health-care practitioners and parents should be prepared to let go. A well-planned transition helps assimilate a transition team, assesses transition readiness of the adolescent and the family, and facilitates the development of a team approach to medical care in the adult-oriented setting. The process of transition to adult-oriented care provides the adolescent with a hope for the future and helps enhance his/her sense of per sonal responsibility and control. Transition signals emancipation and prepares the adolescent and the young adult to become an independent health-care consumer. Adult patients in the pediatric setting may begin to feel uncomfortable, and this may adversely affect treatment adherence [23]. It provides an opportunity for an unbi ased reassessment of the existing problems and possibly to uncover new problems [23]. The process of transition can be emotionally rewarding for the internist, and it may offer opportunities for professional fulfillment to the internist and collaboration and mutual learning for the pediatric and adult teams alike. The relatively protected and parent-oriented pediatric environment may reinforce dependence and continued parental responsibilities in providing for financial support, transportation, and other needs. The Adolescent and the Family Over time the adolescent and pediatrician have come to know each other well and have developed a trusting relationship. The young adult now faces the challenges of estab lishing a new relationship with the new physician and meeting all the expectations of adulthood. Lack of appropriate support systems, severity of the chronic condition, delayed maturation and adaptation, inadequate coping style, and lack of personal motivation on the part of the youth all may interfere with the transition process. Parents may feel loss of control as their involve ment gradually becomes mainly peripheral. Parental inability to let go, emotional dependency, and need for control may hinder the process. Greydanus the Physician and the Medical Team For the physician, readiness for transition on the part of the adolescent and the family may be difficult to assess.

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Cloths for cleaning working surfaces and tables are a com m on source of infection. It is strongly recom m ended that disposable cloths are used to m inim ise the risk of contam ination. If going to tropical areas check that you have sufficient appropriate insecticides to deal w ith m osquitoes. Insecticides are usually carried in tw o form s: s a liquid insecticide intended for the destruction of flying insects such as flies and m osquitoes, and also non-flying insects such as cockroaches, bugs and ants; s an insecticide pow der intended for use on the body, personal clothing, bedding, blankets and such like, for the destruction of bugs, fleas and body lice. In addition there are insecticides in tablet form w hich have to be heated by, for exam ple, a low w attage electric lam p. It is im portant to appreciate the difference in practice betw een the control of flying insects and non-flying insects: Flying insects are controlled by spraying the insecticide into the affected space. Craw ling insects such as cockroaches usually hide and breed in cracks and crevices and in the spaces behind lockers and cooking stoves. The area around their hiding places should be thoroughly and liberally sprayed so that they com e into contact w ith the insecticide as they em erge to feed. The surfaces should be sprayed thoroughly to ensure the rapid destruction of the bugs as they run over the sprayed area. Disinfection A disinfectant is a substance used for cleaning instrum ents, m aterials, lavatory pans, bed pans, etc. An antiseptic has a sim ilar anti-bacterial action, but is generally m ore suitable for application to hum an tissues. Disinfestation is the destruction of rats, m ice and insects of all kinds w hich m ay or m ay not carry disease to hum ans. Sterilisation In ships this term m eans the destruction of germ s by the use of boiling w ater or steam. It is a very sim ple and effective w ay of rendering free from germ s articles of all kinds. Boiling cannot, of course, be used to sterilise certain fabrics w hich are dam aged by boiling, such as those containing w ool. Disinfection at end of illness this term m eans the disinfection of a room after it has been occupied by an infectious patient. The furniture should be left on deck, preferably in the sun, after having been thoroughly scrubbed. A m ore thorough procedure is necessary in the case of serious infectious illnesses, such as plague, cholera, typhus, or typhoid fever. He m ay consider it desirable to carry out a further disinfection by other m eans. Isolation the isolation of an ill patient w ill prevent the spread of disease to other persons on board. Details of the type of isolation necessary are given in Chapter 6 at the beginning of each section dealing w ith a particular illness. If disposable eating and drinking utensils are available, these should be used and later destroyed. They should never be w ashed up w ith utensils used by other m em bers of the crew. All used bed linen and tow els should be sterilised by boiling or by disinfection.

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Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae) Constitutional remedy for deficiency of memory, difficulty in finding words, and other speech disorders. Acidum phosphoricum (phosphoric acid) Physical and mental exhaustion, poor memory. Manganum phosphoricum (manganese phosphate) Weak memory, conditions of exhaustion with anaemia. Semecarpus anacardium (Malacca nut) Weak memory, vertigo, lack of concentration, hallucinations. Conium maculatum (spotted hemlock) Vertigo, tremor, speech disorders, weak memory. Medorrhinum-Nosode (medorrhinum nosode) Weak memory, nervousness, morning exhaustion, frontal headaches, fear of darkness. Anamirta cocculus (Indian berries) Kinetosis, feeling of emptiness and hollowness, great exhaustion and general debility. Ambra grisea (amber) Vertigo, hyperexcitability, lack of concentration and poor memory. Sulfur (sulphur) Reagent, stimulation of the enzyme functions, difficulty in falling asleep and remaining asleep through the night. Gelsemium sempervirens (wild jasmine) Headache (pain in the occiput, sensation of a tight band being tied round the head), vertigo, stupor, pain in the eyeballs. Ruta graveolens (rue) Asthenopia with burning of the eyes, headache after overstraining the eyes, antisclerotic agent. Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) Regulates the peripheral circulation and lymph flow, capillary action. The total action of Cerebrum compositum is not only directed towards improving the whole cerebral function, including the memory, but also towards the prevention or improvement of circulatory disturbances arising from arteriosclerosis with the consecutive lowering of cerebral capacity not only in the aged but also in underdeveloped children showing a poor performance at school, as well as for stress. Also preparations such as Tonico-Injeel (physical weakness), Neuro-Injeel (improvement of mental functions), Lymphomyosot (stimulation of the lymphatic drainage) and others can be interpolated; when there is a suspicion of precancerous dermatosis or formation of neoplasm, also the preparations Coenzyme compositum ampoules, Ubichinon compositum ampoules, Thyreoidea compositum and possibly also Glyoxal compositum (possibly injected only once). The improvement of the cerebral and neural functions which can be achieved by means of Cerebrum compositum is also found to be favourable in the widest variety of organic diseases of the nervous system, especially in association with other antihomotoxic therapeutical measures (Galium-Heel, etc. Indications: Cholangitis, cholecystitis, biliary colic, hepatitis acuta and chronica, obstructive jaundice, hepatic damage (parenchymal damage); as accompanying therapy for arrhythmia cordis. Pharmacological and clinical notes Chelidonium majus (celandine) Cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, biliary colic, pains under the right scapula, hepatopathy. Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) Spasms, colic, necessity to stretch out straight. Based on the individual homoeopathic constituents of Chelidonium-Homaccord, therapeutic possibilities result for the treatment of cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, (obstructive) jaundice. In these cases there is usually pain under the right costal arch radiating to the right scapula. Also for hepatic disorders (hepatitis acuta et chronica, other disorders of the liver parenchyma) and for migraine as remedy for disorders of the hepatic functions (especially for pains over the right eye and rheumatism of the right shoulder and arm). For hepatic damage and cirrhosis of the liver in addition to Psorinoheel, Galium-Heel, Lymphomyosot, Hepeel, etc. As auxiliary remedy to Gastricumeel (gastritis, gastric ulcers) and Duodenoheel (duodenal ulcers), Nux vomica-Homaccord (general remedy for hepatic gastrointestinal affections, spasmodic constipation). An extraordinarily important, deeply effective hepatic remedy which is indicated for almost all patients (for the liver disorders and irritation of the gall bladder almost always present) at intervals and as auxiliary remedy. It is especially well suited in alternation with Nux vomica-Homaccord, Veratrum-Homaccord (diverticulitis coli) as well as with all other Heel biotherapeutics to support the detoxicating hepatic function.


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Kalium stibyltartaricum (antimony potassium tactrate) Expectorant, coughs with retching and nausea, varicella, scrofulosis, urticaria, rubella. Based on the individual homoeopathic constituents of Apis-Homaccord therapeutic possibilities result for the treatment of oedema with slight myocardial weakness (in addition to Aurumheel N drops), especially malleolar oedema in warm weather, rubella and varioliform skin diseases, strophulus infantum, urticarial exanthema, expectorant in bronchitis and laryngitis, neurodermatitis, herpes zoster, insect stings, oedema of glottis, albuminuria, glomerulonephritis acuta (in addition to Albumoheel S), circumscribed, painful burning areas (including after bee stings and insect stings), cerebral sensitivity (in addition to Bryaconeel, Cruroheel S, Belladonna-Homaccord). The dosage is adjusted according to the disease, the symptoms and the stage of the illness: 10 drops 2-4 times daily, possibly alternating with Sulfur-Heel (pruritus), Psorinoheel (skin and head affections), Phosphor-Homaccord (oedema of glottis), Aurumheel N drops (myocardial weakness, oedema), Belladonna-Homaccord (reaction phases, rubella), 1 ampoule possibly in a mixed injection with auxiliary remedies, in acute disorders daily, otherwise three times weekly, i. Indications: (Sub)acute and (sub)chronic inflammation of a localised or generalised nature. Contraindications: Pregnancy and hypersensitivity to tomato plants or to the genus Rhus of the Anacardiaceae family. Pharmacological and clinical notes Arnica montana (mountain arnica) A feeling of exhaustion, sepsis, furunculosis, foetor ex ore. Bryonia cretica (bryony) Inflammation of all serous membranes, polyarthritis, pleuritis, great thirst, constipation (black faeces). Acidum benzoicum (benzoic acid) Polyarthritis acuta et chronica with ammoniacal urine (like horse urine), endocarditis. Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron) Rheumatism and gout, gastroenteritis, autumn diarrhoea, neoplasm phases (colchicine as mitosis-inhibiting factor). Eupatorium cannabinum (hemp agrimony) Intermittent fever, influenza, pyelitis, cystitis, adnexitis, fluor albus. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) Rheumatism, influenza, bronchiolitis, pain in the whole of the body. Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved cone flower) Inflammatory and septic diseases, to increase the mesenchymal defenses. Rhus toxicodendron (poison oak) Rheumatism, worsening of the disorders upon starting to move (feeling of stiffness), neuralgia, polyarthritis, diseases of the mucosa and connective tissue, conjunctivitis. Eucalyptus globulus (blue gum) Antipyretic in influenza and catarrh, hoarseness with a feeling of rawness in the throat. Baptisia tinctoria (wild indigo) Septic conditions, coated tongue with a dark streak in the middle, typhus diseases, malodorous ulcerations on the mucosa, gangrene. Solanum nigrum (black nightshade) Cerebral irritation, spasms in cerebral affections and pseudomeningitis, disorders of the peripheral circulation, disorientation. Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet) Worsening of condition in wet weather; after being drenched by rain, onset of tonsillitis, rheumatism, polyarthritis. Apis mellifica (honey bee) Inflammation of an exudative nature, accompanying (toxic) oedema, meningitic irritation, burning and stabbing pains. Also for meningitic irritation and otitis media (in addition to Chelidonium-Homaccord), polysinusitis (in addition to Traumeel S tablets and possibly Naso-Heel S). Arnica-Heel is an important complementary remedy to numerous other Heel biotherapeutical agents. The dosage is adjusted according to the disease, the clinical appearance and the stage of the illness: 10 drops 2-4 times daily. Indications: Myalgia after overstrain, diseases of the arterious and venous system. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to arnica; hypersensitivity to constituents of the ointment base. Pharmacological and clinical notes Arnica montana (mountain arnica) Myalgia, diseases of the arterious and venous system. Pharmacological and clinical notes Arsenicum album (white arsenic) Exhaustion, marasmus, despondency with anxiety that health will never be restored, strong desire for warmth, thirst, most serious exogenous and endogenous toxin levels, enteritis with diarrhoea, nephritis, eczema, dermatitis with burning and irritation, all disorders worsening at night. Acidum aceticum (acetic acid) Marasmus in acute diseases, oedematous swelling, diabetes mellitus, thirst, hyperacidity, severe anaemia with diarrhoea, wax-like appearance, profuse perspiration.

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A rapidly pro Any precipitant should be removed: Precipitating medica gressive acute peripheral neuropathy, with sensory symp tions should be discontinued, infections should be treated, toms and a rapidly ascending paralysis, begins within 30 and inadequate diets corrected. Preventing future acute minutes after eating affected shellfish and may lead to attacks by avoiding known precipitants is important. There is no available anti Identification of the responsible genetic mutation in an toxin, but with proper supportive care (including mechani affected patient allows for genetic screening of other family cal ventilation if necessary) the patient recovers completely. Arsenic may also cause a skin neurologic manifestation, results from a predominantly rash, with increased skin pigmentation and marked exfo motor polyneuropathy that causes a symmetric distur liation, together with the presence of Mees lines (transverse bance that is sometimes more marked proximally than white lines) on the nails in long-standing cases. It may begin in the upper limbs and progress to can produce a scaly rash and hair loss. Progression is variable in often painful, are usually early manifestation of polyneu rate and extent and can lead to complete flaccid quadripa ropathy; this is followed by symmetric motor impairment, resis with respiratory paralysis over a few days. Sensory which is usually more marked distally than proximally and loss is less conspicuous and extensive; muscle pain is some occurs in the legs rather than the arms. Fever, excessive sweating, persistent tachycardia, change in cell content, and the electrophysiologic findings hypertension, hyponatremia (attributed to inappropriate sometimes resemble those of Guillain-Barre syndrome, secretion of antidiuretic hormone), and peripheral leuko especially in the acute phase of the disorder. The diagnosis cytosis may accompany acute attacks, and patients may of arsenic toxicity is best established by measuring the arsenic become dehydrated. Sensory loss is usually inconspicuous Organophosphate compounds are widely used as insecti or absent. There may be loss or depression of tendon cides and are also the active principles in the nerve gas of reflexes. They have a variety of acute toxic effects, anemia, constipation, colicky abdominal pain, gum discol particularly manifestations of cholinergic crisis caused by oration, and nephropathy. Some organophosphates, workers develop minor degrees of peripheral nerve dam however, also induce a delayed polyneuropathy that gener age as a result of lead toxicity is not clear. Progressive leg weakness then occurs, intravenous or intramuscular edetate calcium disodium along with depression of the tendon reflexes. In some patients, involvement may be wasting and weakness, electrophysiologic evidence of mul severe enough to cause quadriplegia, whereas in others the tifocal motor demyelination with partial motor conduction weakness is much milder. Mild pyramidal signs also may be block but normal sensory responses, and the presence of present. There is no Treatment after exposure includes decontamination of the sensory loss or upper motor neuron involvement. The skin with bleach or soap and water and administration of disorder typically has an insidious onset and chronic atropine 2 to 6 mg every 5 minutes and pralidoxime 1 g every course, but variants occur with a more acute onset. For the hour for up to 3 hours, both given intramuscularly or intra diagnosis to be established, electrophysiologic studies venously. Atropine blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors, should demonstrate a motor deficit in the distribution of and pralidoxime binds to and reactivates acetylcholinester two or more named nerves and related to conduction block ase. There is no treatment for the neuropathy other than outside of common entrapment sites. Recovery of peripheral nerve function may involvement of only a single nerve has been described occur with time, but central deficits are usually permanent (monofocal motor neuropathy). Treatment of chronic immune-mediated neu tions and may also occur in those using lead-containing ropathies: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculo paints or who ingest contaminated alcohol. Inorganic lead neuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and the can produce dysfunction of both the central and peripheral Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Accordingly, only Bell palsy, which leads primarily to a motor deficit, is discussed here. In approximately 80% of tral nervous system, without evidence of more widespread cases, antibodies to the skeletal muscle nicotinic acetyl neurologic disease, has been designated Bell palsy. Its cause choline receptor are present and lead to loss of receptor is unclear, but it occurs more commonly in pregnant function.

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In the seven cost-utility analyses, acupuncture was found to be clinically effective but cost more than western medical treatment. The cost-effectiveness study indicated that there might be both clinical benefits and cost savings associated with acupuncture for the treatment of migraine headache. These evaluations provide important evidence about the potential economic advan tages of acupuncture treatment and should be appreciated from a public health Reference: perspective. The to patients, but it also may offer important cost-savings to consumers, insurers and Economics of Health and Health Care. Current botanical medicine research has predominantly investigated herbal constituents in isolation and not the chemical 1. This study aims to investigate the National University of Natural Medicine potential synergistic relationships using three herbs commonly found in pairs within Please see bios at the end of this article classical Chinese medicine. Materials and Methods: Dried herbs were decocted in deionized water for 30 minutes at 100 fiC either independently or in pairs of licorice with ginger and licorice with bupleurum, at varying ratios. Peak area, retention time, and peak shape were collected and compared between samples of individual herbs and the herbal pairs. Results: Licorice, ginger and bupleurum, when decocted in pairs rather than in isolation, showed differences in chromatograms, including increases and decreases in peak area, and new peak formation. Conclusions: Decoction in pairs versus single decoctions showed variation in the chemical signature indicating potential synergy among classical Chinese medicine herbal pairs. Future studies are needed to determine the chemical structure of these novel peaks as well as their potential for clinical application. Chinese herbal therapy uses formulas based on the concept One way to help simplify the scientific study of herbal synergism of synergistic relationships between herbs. Evidence flavonoids during the decoction process when multiple herbs are of new compounds found in herbal pairings corroborates classical combined in the formula Sini tang. These findings warrant further investigation into Chinese herbal pairs to evaluate the potential for synergy and the formation of Studies of pharmacognosy are rapidly turning towards under novel compounds within a decoction. This is based broader, and may require further differentiation from researchers upon the empirical use of traditional botanical medicines by to determine the action of each herb within a formula. Each of these herbs was decocted individually and then in Synergistic relationships between herbs hold many diverse combination with licorice at ratios found in classical Chinese avenues of action for creating potentially therapeutic outcomes. This study found differences between the One of the simplest definitions of synergism is that the whole individual and paired herbal decoctions in chemical constituent is greater than the sum of the individual parts rather than an concentrations and presence. Often this form of syn ergism has been established in relation to multiple constituents 2. Materials and Methods found within the same plant or similar species of plants (Duke and Bogenschutz-Godwin, 1999). Glycyrrizae), one of the most commonly used herbs in the Chinese materia medica, is found in up to 80% of classical Chinese herbal Wagner (2011) lists four possible means by which synergism formulas (Wang and Yang, 2007). Licorice root second, through the improved solubility of one constituent via contains many bioactive constituents, one of which is glycyr the presence of another; third, through antagonizing or breaking rhizin, a triterpenoid saponin glycoside (Blumenthal et al. Saponins such as glycyrrhizin are known to have many different A dilemma facing clinical application of herbal pairs revolves pharmacological properties including active hydrophilic and around establishing an effective justification for herbal synergism lipophilic binding sites (Brielmann, 1999). This allows the agent to within current biological, chemical, and physiological frameworks. Such a unique chemical profile and broad usage strong scientific basis to justify the mixing of plant extracts to in classical Chinese medicine make licorice an ideal herb for improve pharmacological efficacy. A single 50 mL tube of each sample was thawed to combinations with licorice such as Yi Gan Tang for conditions that room temperature and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 5 minutes to contain heat such as liver and gallbladder disease (Bensky et al. Herbal material was purchased with solvent degasser, refrigerated autosampler, column oven, from Spring Wind Herbs, Inc. Peak area, retention time, and peak shape were used to added to 300 mL of de-ionized water in a sterile glass beaker for determine peak area change and novel peaks in each chromato decoction.

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Distinctiveness and correlates of maladaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with Smith-Magenis syndrome. Behavioural and emotional characteristics in children with Sotos syndrome and learning disabilities. Consensus clinical guidelines for the assessment of cognitive and behavioural problems in tuberous sclerosis. Behavior problems in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and parental stress. Self injurious behavior and tuberous sclerosis complex: frequency and possible associations in a population of 257 patients. Turner syndrome: a review of genetic and hormonal infiuences on neuropsychological functioning. Intellectual abilities in a large sample of children with velo-cardio-facial syndrome: an update. Disabilities and cogni tion in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Social skills and executive function deficits in children with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Distinctive personality characteristics of 8-, 9-, and 10-year olds with Williams syndrome. Chapter 7 Autism Spectrum Disorders Ahsan Nazeer Abstract Autism spectrum disorders are becoming more recognized in the general population. With increased awareness, primary care physicians are diagnosing these disorders at an earlier age. Introduction Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that despite having a history of spanning well over 100 years has only recently gained widespread recognition. The history of autism is not linear and marred with misconceptions on one side and scientific breakthroughs on the other. He described these children to be born without the ability to make social relationships and identified some characteristic features including limited ability to develop relationships, lan guage delays, aloofness, lack of imagination, and persistence on sameness. The years following the initial identification of autistic disorder were a period of significant diagnostic uncertainties, with some clinicians using autistic criteria too broadly and some too narrowly. The domains of social interaction and communication will be merged into social/communication deficits and restricted interests will be renamed fixed interests/repetitive behaviors.